International Science Index

International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

894
78482
Thermal-Mechanical Analysis of a Bridge Deck to Determine Residual Weld Stresses
Abstract:
The knowledge of residual stresses for welded bridge components is essential to determine the effect of the residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior. The residual stresses of an orthotropic bridge deck are determined by simulating the welding process with finite element modelling. The stiffener is placed on top of the deck plate before welding. A chained thermal-mechanical analysis is set up to determine the distribution of residual stresses for the bridge deck. First, a thermal analysis is used to determine the temperatures of the orthotropic deck for different time steps during the welding process. Twin wire submerged arc welding is used to construct the orthotropic plate. A double ellipsoidal volume heat source model is used to describe the heat flow through a material for a moving heat source. The heat input is used to determine the heat flux which is applied as a thermal load during the thermal analysis. The heat flux for each element is calculated for different time steps to simulate the passage of the welding torch with the considered welding speed. This results in a time dependent heat flux that is applied as a thermal loading. Thermal material behavior is specified by assigning the properties of the material in function of the high temperatures during welding. Isotropic hardening behavior is included in the model. The thermal analysis simulates the heat introduced in the two plates of the orthotropic deck and calculates the temperatures during the welding process. After the calculation of the temperatures introduced during the welding process in the thermal analysis, a subsequent mechanical analysis is performed. For the boundary conditions of the mechanical analysis, the actual welding conditions are considered. Before welding, the stiffener is connected to the deck plate by using tack welds. These tack welds are implemented in the model. The deck plate is allowed to expand freely in an upwards direction while it rests on a firm and flat surface. This behavior is modelled by using grounded springs. Furthermore, symmetry points and lines are used to prevent the model to move freely in other directions. In the thermal analysis, a mechanical material model is used. The calculated temperatures during the thermal analysis are introduced during the mechanical analysis as a time dependent load. The connection of the elements of the two plates in the fusion zone is realized with a glued connection which is activated when the welding temperature is reached. The mechanical analysis results in a distribution of the residual stresses. The distribution of the residual stresses of the orthotropic bridge deck is compared with results from literature. Literature proposes uniform tensile yield stresses in the weld while the finite element modelling showed tensile yield stresses at a short distance from the weld root or the weld toe. The chained thermal-mechanical analysis results in a distribution of residual weld stresses for an orthotropic bridge deck. In future research, the effect of these residual stresses on the fatigue life behavior of welded bridge components can be studied.
893
78444
Design and Analysis of Active Rocket Control Systems
Abstract:
The presented work regards a single-stage aerodynamically controlled solid propulsion rocket. Steering a rocket to fly along a predetermined trajectory can be beneficial for minimizing aerodynamic losses and achieved by implementing an active control system on board. In this particular case, a canard configuration has been chosen, although other methods of control have been considered and preemptively analyzed, including non-aerodynamic ones. The objective of this work is to create a system capable of guiding the rocket, focusing on roll stabilization. The paper describes initial analysis of the problem, covers the main challenges of missile guidance and presents data acquired during the experimental study.
892
78492
Numerical Analyses of Dynamics of Deployment of PW-Sat2 Deorbit Sail Compared with Results of Experiment under Micro-Gravity and Low Pressure Conditions
Abstract:
Big amount of space debris constitutes nowadays a real thread for operating space crafts; therefore the main purpose of PW-Sat2’ team was to create a system that could help cleanse the Earth’s orbit after each small satellites’ mission. After 4 years of development, the motorless, low energy consumption and low weight system has been created. During series of tests, the system has shown high reliable efficiency. The PW-Sat2’s deorbit system is a square-shaped sail which covers an area of 4m². The sail surface is made of 6 μm aluminized Mylar film which is stretched across 4 diagonally placed arms, each consisting of two C-shaped flat springs and enveloped in Mylar sleeves. The sail is coiled using a special, custom designed folding stand that provides automation and repeatability of the sail unwinding tests and placed in a container with inner diameter of 85 mm. In the final configuration the deorbit system weights ca. 600 g and occupies 0.6U (in accordance with CubeSat standard). The sail’s releasing system requires minimal amount of power based on thermal knife that burns out the Dyneema wire, which holds the system before deployment. The Sail is being pushed out of the container within a safe distance (20 cm away) from the satellite. The energy for the deployment is completely assured by coiled C-shaped flat springs, which during the release, unfold the sail surface. To avoid dynamic effects on the satellite’s structure, there is the rotational link between the sail and satellite’s main body. To obtain complete knowledge about complex dynamics of the deployment, a number of experiments have been performed in varied environments. The numerical model of the dynamics of the Sail’s deployment has been built and is still under continuous development. Currently, the integration of the flight model and Deorbit Sail is performed. The launch is scheduled for February 2018. At the same time, in cooperation with United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, sail models and requested facilities are being prepared for the sail deployment experiment under micro-gravity and low pressure conditions at Bremen Drop Tower, Germany. Results of those tests will provide an ultimate and wide knowledge about deployment in space environment to which system will be exposed during its mission. Outcomes of the numerical model and tests will be compared afterwards and will help the team in building a reliable and correct model of a very complex phenomenon of deployment of 4 c-shaped flat springs with surface attached. The verified model could be used inter alia to investigate if the PW-Sat2’s sail is scalable and how far is it possible to go with enlarging when creating systems for bigger satellites.
891
77837
Active Noise Control at Remote Locations Based on Filtered Weight FxLMS Algorithm
Abstract:
An adaptive active noise control system creates a silent zone around an error microphone. This silent zone, however, is small and mostly occupied by the error microphone itself. So the silent zone cant be used efficiently. Remote FxLMS algorithm has been proposed to create a silent zone away from the error microphone, resulting in more efficient use of the silent zone. Unfortunately, Remote FxLMS is not robust when dealing with band-limited noise and very sensitive to external interference; in practice, the error signal will diverge after a period of adaptation process for various values of step size. Surpassing this problem, this paper proposed a modified Remote FxLMS algorithm based on filtering weighting parameters. Real time experimental results show this modification improves the robustness and performance of previous remote FxLMS algorithm at the cost of reducing the convergence speed.
890
77173
Phase Optimized Ternary Alloy Material for Gas Turbines
Abstract:
Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C, but in synchronization with other functional components, they must readily deliver efficient performance, whilst incurring minimal overhaul and repair costs during its service life up to 5 million flying miles. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures the major component failure mechanism is creep. During its service over time under high temperatures and loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. 25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio ensures TaAl3 phase formation, where as 51% Al/(Al+Ti) ratio ensures formation of α-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl mixed phases fand the three phase combination ensures minimal Al excess (~1.4% Al excess), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb which has significant excess Al (~5% Al excess) that could affect the service life of turbine blades. This presentation will involve the summary of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Summary of thermo-mechanical test results such as high temperature tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness will be presented. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. Phase compositions will be quantified, and a summary of its correlation with creep strain rate will be presented.
889
76465
A Fast Portable Computational Framework for Aerodynamic Simulations
Abstract:
We develop a fast, user-friendly implementation of a potential flow solver based on the unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM). The computational framework uses the Python programming language which has easy integration with the scripts requiring computationally-expensive operations written in Fortran. The mixed-language approach enables high performance in terms of solution time and high flexibility in terms of easiness of code adaptation to different system configurations and applications. This computational tool is intended to predict the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of multiple moving bodies (e.g., flapping wings, rotating blades, suspension bridges...) subject to an incoming air. We simulate different aerodynamic problems to validate and illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the developed computational tool.
888
77434
Shear Surface and Localized Waves in Functionally Graded Piezoactive Electro-Magneto-Elastic Media
Abstract:
Recently, the propagation of coupled electromagnetic and elastic waves in magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) structures attracted much attention due to the wide range of application of these materials in smart structures. MEE materials are a class of new artificial composites that consist of simultaneous piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases. Magneto-electro-elastic composites are built up by combining piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases to obtain a smart composite that presents not only the electromechanical and magneto-mechanical coupling but also a strong magnetoelectric coupling, which makes such materials highly valuable in technological usage. In the framework of quasi-static approach shear surface and localized waves are considered in magneto-electro-elastic piezo-active structure consisting of functionally graded 6mm hexagonal symmetry group crystals. Assuming that in a functionally graded material the elastic and electromagnetic properties vary in the same proportion in direction perpendicular to the MEE polling direction, special classes of inhomogeneity functions were found, admitting exact solutions for coupled electromagnetic and elastic wave fields. Based on these exact solutions, defining the coupled shear wave field in magneto-electro-elastic composites several modal problems are considered: shear surface waves propagation along surface of a MEE half-space, interfacial wave propagation in a MEE oppositely polarized bi-layer, Love type waves in a functionally graded MEE layer overlying a homogeneous elastic half-space. For the problems under consideration corresponding dispersion equations are deduced analytically in an explicit form and for the BaTiO₃–CoFe₂O₄ crystal numerical results estimating effects of inhomogeneity and piezo effect are carried out.
887
78132
Analysis and Experimental Validation of Morphing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Wings
Abstract:
The development of new technologies such as rapid prototyping and the use of materials with improved properties such as highly resistant extruded polystyrene foam which can be easily and precisely shaped, while conserving its mechanical properties allow researchers to improve design concepts. This paper details the development of a new set of morphing wings for a 15kg maximum take-off weight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) from concept design, to flight tests, including modelling, design optimisation, construction and wind tunnel tests. A set of comparator equivalent conventional wings have been used throughout in order to be able to judge any benefits stemming from the adoption of morphing technology. The paper shows that the morphing wings provide a controllable aircraft while reducing drag by a factor of 40% compared to the comparator wings with conventional ailerons in a deflected position.
886
77795
Solid Particles Transport and Deposition Prediction in a Turbulent Impinging Jet Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method and a Probabilistic Model on GPU
Abstract:
Solid particle distribution on an impingement surface has been simulated utilizing a graphical processing unit (GPU). In-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been developed to investigate a 3D turbulent impinging jet using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in conjunction with large eddy simulation (LES) and the multiple relaxation time (MRT) models. This paper proposed an improvement in the LBM-cellular automata (LBM-CA) probabilistic method. In the current model, the fluid flow utilizes the D3Q19 lattice, while the particle model employs the D3Q27 lattice. The particle numbers are defined at the same regular LBM nodes, and transport of particles from one node to its neighboring nodes are determined in accordance with the particle bulk density and velocity by considering all the external forces. The previous models distribute particles at each time step without considering the local velocity and the number of particles at each node. The present model overcomes the deficiencies of the previous LBM-CA models and, therefore, can better capture the dynamic interaction between particles and the surrounding turbulent flow field. Despite the increasing popularity of LBM-MRT-CA model in simulating complex multiphase fluid flows, this approach is still expensive in term of memory size and computational time required to perform 3D simulations. To improve the throughput of each simulation, a single GeForce GTX TITAN X GPU is used in the present work. The CUDA parallel programming platform and the CuRAND library are utilized to form an efficient LBM-CA algorithm. The methodology was first validated against a benchmark test case involving particle deposition on a square cylinder confined in a duct. The flow was unsteady and laminar at Re=200 (Re is the Reynolds number), and simulations were conducted for different Stokes numbers. The present LBM solutions agree well with other results available in the open literature. The GPU code was then used to simulate the particle transport and deposition in a turbulent impinging jet at Re=10,000. The simulations were conducted for L/D=2,4 and 6, where L is the nozzle-to-surface distance and D is the jet diameter. The effect of changing the Stokes number on the particle deposition profile was studied at different L/D ratios. For comparative studies, another in-house serial CPU code was also developed, coupling LBM with the classical Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Agreement between results obtained with LBM-CA and LBM-Lagrangian models and the experimental data is generally good. The present GPU approach achieves a speedup ratio of about 350 against the serial code running on a single CPU.
885
76334
Improving Ride Comfort and Trackwear of Two-Axle Railway Vehicles Using Inerter-Based Lateral Suspension Layouts
Abstract:
The trade-off between reducing railway vehicles’ lateral acceleration whilst on a straight track, and reducing the magnitude of the wheel-rail contact patch cornering forces has long been problematic. When a railway vehicle travels around a curve, lower static longitudinal suspension stiffness (the yaw stiffness) results in a decrease in the energy lost due to friction at the contact patch, which is quantified in this paper by the parameter commonly used in industry, Tγ. However, this leads to an increase in the lateral acceleration of the vehicle body during straight track conditions, causing a deterioration in ride comfort. Decreasing Tγ reduces wear and prolongs the service life of the track and wheels, whereas improving ride comfort creates a smoother passenger experience. This paper assesses the relative merits of employing different passive lateral suspension networks, some including inerters. An inerter, analogous to an electrical capacitor, is a two-terminal mechanical element which exerts a force proportional to the relative acceleration between its terminals. A two-axle railway vehicle (without bogies) is theoretically modelled in state-space form, using a linear creepage versus creep force relationship, and assuming a circular contact patch. The Root-Mean-Squared (RMS) acceleration of the vehicle body is used to quantify ride comfort at a nominal speed of 31m/s, and a lateral track disturbance represented by a 5km section of a 31m/s rated track is used. Optimum parameters for six different suspension layouts are identified, and for layouts including a single inerter in parallel, a reduction in RMS acceleration of 45% is achieved. The relationship between vehicle speed and minimized RMS acceleration is assessed, and with the exception of the intermediate speed range of 10-20m/s, and above 38m/s, layouts including a single inerter in parallel outperform others. Furthermore, within the 5-10m/s region, there is a much larger increase in RMS carriage acceleration when using layouts without a single parallel inerter. Curving track analysis is performed by simulating the vehicle curving with a track cant angle of 6° and a track curving radius of 1000m, with a 1s transition period at both the beginning and end of the corner. An algorithm for calculating Tγ is adopted, and it is found to be highly dependent on the yaw stiffness. As a result, the use of inerters in the lateral suspension has a very limited effect on Tγ. However, a good level of ride comfort can still be achieved when the yaw stiffness is reduced (hence reducing Tγ) by re-optimizing the lateral suspension parameters. Trade-off plots displaying RMS carriage acceleration versus Tγ for different values of yaw stiffness are produced for all lateral suspension configurations that include a single parallel inerter. This research has demonstrated that including single parallel inerters in the lateral suspension networks significantly reduces the RMS lateral acceleration, as well as allowing the yaw stiffness, hence Tγ, to be reduced. The acceleration versus Tγ trade-off plots allow the correct optimized network component parameters to be chosen according to how important ride comfort or trackwear is for a particular vehicle and its operating conditions.
884
76911
The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning
Abstract:
Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.
883
77890
Identification of Force Vector on an Elastic Solid Using an Embeded PVDF Senor Array
Abstract:
Identifying the magnitude and direction of a force on an elastic solid is highly desirable, as this allows for investigation and continual monitoring of the dynamic loading. This was traditionally conducted by connecting the solid to the supporting structure by multi-axial force transducer, providing that the transducer will not change the mounting conditions. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film is a versatile force transducer that can be easily embedded in structures. Here a PVDF sensor array is embedded inside a simple structure in an effort to determine the force vector applied to the structure is an inverse problem. In this paper, forces of different magnitudes and directions where applied to the structure with an impact hammer, and the output of the PVDF was captured and processed to gain an estimate of the forces applied by the hammer. The outcome extends the scope of application of PVDF sensors for measuring the external or contact force vectors.
882
77732
Comparison of Finite Difference Schemes for Numerical Study of Ripa Model
Authors:
Abstract:
The river and lakes flows are modeled mathematically by shallow water equations that are depth-averaged Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations under Boussinesq approximation. The temperature stratification dynamics influence the water quality and mixing characteristics. It is mainly due to the atmospheric conditions including air temperature, wind velocity, and radiative forcing. The experimental observations are commonly taken along vertical scales and are not sufficient to estimate small turbulence effects of temperature variations induced characteristics of shallow flows. Wind shear stress over the water surface influence flow patterns, heat fluxes and thermodynamics of water bodies as well. Hence it is crucial to couple temperature gradients with shallow water model to estimate the atmospheric effects on flow patterns. The Ripa system has been introduced to study ocean currents as a variant of shallow water equations with addition of temperature variations within the flow. Ripa model is a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations because all the eigenvalues of the system’s Jacobian matrix are real and distinct. The time steps of a numerical scheme are estimated with the eigenvalues of the system. The solution to Riemann problem of the Ripa model is composed of shocks, contact and rarefaction waves. Solving Ripa model with Riemann initial data with the central schemes is difficult due to the eigen structure of the system.This works presents the comparison of four different finite difference schemes for the numerical solution of Riemann problem for Ripa model. These schemes include Lax-Friedrichs, Lax-Wendroff, MacCormack scheme and a higher order finite difference scheme with WENO method. The numerical flux functions in both dimensions are approximated according to these methods. The temporal accuracy is achieved by employing TVD Runge Kutta method. The numerical tests are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. It is revealed that Lax-Freidrichs scheme produces results with oscillations while Lax-Wendroff and higher order difference scheme produce quite better results.
881
72425
Wind Turbine Scaling for the Investigation of Vortex Shedding and Wake Interactions
Abstract:
Traditionally, the focus of horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade aerodynamic optimisation studies has been the outer working region of the blade. However, recent works seek to better understand, and thus improve upon, the performance of the inboard blade region to enhance power production, maximise load reduction and better control the wake behaviour. This paper presents the design considerations and characterisation of a wind turbine wind tunnel model devised to further the understanding and fundamental definition of horizontal axis wind turbine root vortex shedding and interactions. Additionally, the application of passive and active flow control mechanisms – vortex generators and plasma actuators – to allow for the manipulation and mitigation of unsteady aerodynamic behaviour at the blade inboard section is investigated. A static, modular blade wind turbine model has been developed for use in the University of Glasgow’s de Havilland closed return, low-speed wind tunnel. The model components - which comprise of a half span blade, hub, nacelle and tower - are scaled using the equivalent full span radius, R, for appropriate Mach and Strouhal numbers, and to achieve a Reynolds number in the range of 1.7x105 to 5.1x105 for operational speeds up to 55m/s. The half blade is constructed to be modular and fully dielectric, allowing for the integration of flow control mechanisms with a focus on plasma actuators. Investigations of root vortex shedding and the subsequent wake characteristics using qualitative – smoke visualisation, tufts and china clay flow – and quantitative methods – including particle image velocimetry (PIV), hot wire anemometry (HWA), and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) – were conducted over a range of blade pitch angles 0 to 15 degrees, and Reynolds numbers. This allowed for the identification of shed vortical structures from the maximum chord position, the transitional region where the blade aerofoil blends into a cylindrical joint, and the blade nacelle connection. Analysis of the trailing vorticity interactions between the wake core and freestream shows the vortex meander and diffusion is notably affected by the Reynold’s number. It is hypothesized that the shed vorticity from the blade root region directly influences and exacerbates the nacelle wake expansion in the downstream direction. As the design of inboard blade region form is, by necessity, driven by function rather than aerodynamic optimisation, a study is undertaken for the application of flow control mechanisms to manipulate the observed vortex phenomenon. The designed model allows for the effective investigation of shed vorticity and wake interactions with a focus on the accurate geometry of a root region which is representative of small to medium power commercial HAWTs. The studies undertaken allow for an enhanced understanding of the interplay of shed vortices and their subsequent effect in the near and far wake. This highlights areas of interest within the inboard blade area for the potential use of passive and active flow control devices which contrive to produce a more desirable wake quality in this region.
880
76245
Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines
Abstract:
Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.
879
77638
Characterisation of Wind-Driven Ventilation in Complex Terrain Conditions
Abstract:
The wind driven cross-ventilation phenomenon has been researched extensively by means of controlled wind tunnel experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Most of these studies consider the situation of a room in isolation. The influence of upstream flow obstructions, complex terrain and of low wind speed conditions on internal ventilation flows commonly found in built environments has rarely been investigated in a systematic manner, leaving a gap in the scientific literature on this subject. The motivation behind this work is the observation that in such complex environments, the resulting flow through the room is no longer driven by a pressure differential which defines the cross-ventilation flow. Rather, the resulting flows are dominated by turbulent fluctuations rather than by the average flow velocities. In order to address this research question, this work seeks to establish whether there is a direct correlation between the atmospheric mean wind velocities and the velocities measured within a model test cell located at a site characterised by complex terrain conditions consisting of both vegetation and buildings. The adopted methodology consists of a combination of on-site measurements as well as CFD simulations. The experimental measurements consisted of (i) hot wire measurements at two points within a model test cell and (ii) wind speed/direction measurements at two points using an ultrasonic and a cup anemometer (along with a wind direction vane). The site has a complicated terrain with relatively low average wind speeds. CFD simulations were used for validation and to provide physical insight into the mechanisms governing the observed flow. For the purpose of this study, the simulations were run on a structured grid using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to model turbulence. Vegetation is modelled using a porous medium approach which varies as a function of position in space. In the full paper, a least square linear regression analysis will be presented for the experimental data gathered for different wind direction sectors in order to evaluate the correlation between flow velocities within the cell and the measured external wind conditions. The outcome of this study supports the original hypothesis. A low correlation coefficient ( < 0.7) was found between the measured cell velocities against mean wind velocities. This means that the major driver of the observed flows within the cells is the turbulent fluctuations resulting from the complex flow around the test cell. Different correlation coefficients were obtained as a function of direction of the mean wind velocity which highlights the dependency on the surrounding terrain as well as on the locations of the openings in the test cell. CFD results show appreciably good agreement of the mean flows and provide a quantification of the turbulence intensity within the cells. In conclusion, this work provides measurements and numerical quantification of wind driven ventilation which is mainly guided not through pressure differentials but by means of turbulent fluctuations in the presence of a complex external environment. Future work will focus on detailed turbulence characterization by means of Large Eddy Simulations.
878
77658
Numerical Aeroacoustics Investigation of Eroded and Coated Leading Edge of NACA 64- 618 Airfoil
Abstract:
Long term surface erosion of wind turbine blades, especially at the leading edge, impairs aerodynamic performance; therefore, lowers efficiency of the blades mostly in the high-speed rotor tip regions. Blade protection provides significant improvements in annual energy production, reduces costly downtime, and protects the integrity of the blades. However, this protection still influences the aerodynamic behavior, and broadband noise caused by interaction between the impinging turbulence and blade’s leading edge. This paper presents an extensive numerical aeroacoustics approach by investigating the sound power spectra of the eroded and coated NACA 64-618 wind turbine airfoil and evaluates aeroacoustics improvements after the protection procedure. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), different quasi 2D numerical grids were implemented and special attention was paid to the refinement of the boundary layers. The noise sources were captured and decoupled with acoustic propagation via the derived formulation of Curle’s analogy implemented in OpenFOAM. Therefore, the noise spectra were compared for clean, coated and eroded profiles in the range of chord-based Reynolds number (1.6e6 ≤ Re ≤ 11.5e6). Angle of attack was zero in all cases. Verifications were conducted for the clean profile using available experimental data. Sensitivity studies for the far-field were done on different observational positions. Furthermore, beamforming studies were done simulating an Archimedean spiral microphone array for far-field noise directivity patterns. Comparing the noise spectra of the coated and eroded geometries, results show that, coating clearly improves aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the eroded airfoil.
877
76140
Effect of Mitigation on Partial Failure of Storage Tank Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Abstract:
This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation for the partial failure of a storage tank that occurs in case of a loss of integrity of a small section of the tank shell. This research uses CFD tool to analyze the flow characteristics in the vicinity of the secondary containment called also bund wall. This bund wall surrounds the tank to contain any spillage. CFD analysis allowed to compute the dynamic pressures exerted on the bund wall and the overtopping fractions which are the ratio of the quantity of fluid that surpasses the bund wall to the quantity of fluid initially located inside the tank. The incorporation of a mitigation measure has been investigated through the inclusion of a baffle inside the storage tank labelled Mitigation of Tank Instantaneous Failure (MOTIF). CFD simulations showed that MOTIF reduces significantly both of the dynamic pressures and overtopping fractions.
876
76200
Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Excited by Combined Colored and White Noise Excitations
Abstract:
In this paper, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems to white noise and colored noise excitations are investigated. By expressing colored noise excitation as a second-order filtered white noise process and introducing colored noise as an additional state variable, the equation of motion for SDOF system under colored noise is then transferred artificially to multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system under white noise excitations. As a consequence, corresponding Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) equation governing the joint probabilistic density function (PDF) of state variables increases to 4-dimension (4-D). Solution procedure and computer programme become much more sophisticated. The exponential-polynomial closure (EPC) method, widely applied for cases of SDOF systems under white noise excitations, is developed and improved for cases of systems under colored noise excitations and for solving the complex 4-D FPK equation. On the other hand, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is performed to test the approximate EPC solutions. Two examples associated with Gaussian and non-Gaussian colored noise excitations are considered. Corresponding band-limited power spectral densities (PSDs) for colored noise excitations are separately given. Numerical studies show that the developed EPC method provides relatively accurate estimates of the stationary probabilistic solutions. Moreover, statistical parameter of mean-up crossing rate (MCR) is taken into account, which is important for reliability and failure analysis.
875
76172
Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag Using Vortex Generators
Abstract:
Classified as one of the most important reasons of aerodynamic drag in the sedan automobiles is the fluid flow separation near the vehicle’s rear end. To retard the separation of flow, bump-shaped vortex generators are being tested for its implementation to the roof end of a sedan vehicle. Frequently used in the aircrafts to prevent the separation of fluid flow, vortex generators themselves produce drag, but they also substantially reduce drag by preventing flow separation at the downstream. The net effects of vortex generators can be calculated by summing the positive and negative impacts and effects. Since this effect depends on dimensions and geometry of vortex generators, those present on the vehicle roof are optimized for maximum efficiency and performance. The model was tested through ANSYS CFD analysis and modeling. The model was tested in the wind tunnel for observing it’s properties such as aerodynamic drag and flow separation and a major time lag was gained by employing vortex generators in the scaled model. Major conclusions which were recorded during the analysis were a substantial 24% reduction in the aerodynamic drag and 14% increase in the efficiency of the sedan automobile as the flow separation from the surface is delayed. This paper presents the results of optimization, the effect of vortex generators in the flow field and the mechanism by which these effects occur and are regulated.
874
75629
Modeling and Simulating Drop Interactions in Spray Structure of High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine
Abstract:
Fuel direct injection represents one of the key aspects in the development of the diesel engines, the idea of controlling the auto-ignition and the consequent combustion of a liquid spray injected in a reacting atmosphere during a time scale of few milliseconds has been a challenging task for the engine community and pushed forward to a massive research in this field. The quality of the air-fuel mixture defines the combustion efficiency, and therefore the engine efficiency. A droplet interaction in dense as well as thin portion of the spray receives equal importance as other parameters in spray structure. Usually, these are modeled along with breakup process and analyzed alike. In this paper, droplet interaction is modeled and simulated for high torque low speed scenario. Droplet interactions may further be subdivided into droplet collision and coalescence, spray wall impingement, droplets drag, etc. Droplet collisions may occur in almost all spray applications, but especially in diesel like conditions such as high pressure sprays as utilized in combustion engines. These collisions have a strong influence on the mean droplet size and its spatial distribution and can, therefore, affect sub-processes of spray combustion such as mass, momentum and energy transfer between gas and droplets. Similarly, for high-pressure injection systems spray wall impingement is an inherent sub-process of mixture formation. However, its influence on combustion is in-explicit.
873
75407
Modeling and Simulation of Turbulence Induced in Nozzle Cavitation and Its Effects on Internal Flow in a High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine
Abstract:
To control combustion inside a direct injection diesel engine, fuel atomization is the best tool. Controlling combustion helps in reducing emissions and improves efficiency. Cavitation is one of the most important factors that significantly affect the nature of spray before it injects into combustion chamber. Typical fuel injector nozzles are small and operate at a very high pressure, which limits the study of internal nozzle behavior especially in case of diesel engine. Simulating cavitation in a fuel injector will help in understanding the phenomenon and will assist in further development. There is a parametric variation between high speed and high torque low speed diesel engines. The objective of this study is to simulate internal spray characteristics for a low speed high torque diesel engine. In-nozzle cavitation has strong effects on the parameters e.g. mass flow rate, fuel velocity, and momentum flux of fuel that is to be injected into the combustion chamber. The external spray dynamics and subsequently the air – fuel mixing depends on a lot of the parameters of fuel injecting the nozzle. The approach used to model turbulence induced in – nozzle cavitation for high-torque low-speed diesel engine, is homogeneous equilibrium model. The governing equations were modeled using Matlab. Complete Model in question was extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations on Open FOAM, which is an open source flow solver and implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). Results thus obtained will be analyzed for better evaporation in the near-nozzle region. The proposed analyses will further help in better engine efficiency, low emission, and improved fuel economy.
872
75408
Modeling and Simulation of Primary Atomization and Its Effects on Internal Flow Dynamics in a High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine
Abstract:
Diesel engines are most efficient and reliable in terms of efficiency, reliability and adaptability. Most of the research and development up till now have been directed towards High-Speed Diesel Engine, for Commercial use. In these engines objective is to optimize maximum acceleration by reducing exhaust emission to meet international standards. In high torque low-speed engines the requirement is altogether different. These types of Engines are mostly used in Maritime Industry, Agriculture industry, Static Engines Compressors Engines etc. Unfortunately due to lack of research and development, these engines have low efficiency and high soot emissions and one of the most effective way to overcome these issues is by efficient combustion in an engine cylinder, the fuel spray atomization process plays a vital role in defining mixture formation, fuel consumption, combustion efficiency and soot emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process is of a great importance. In this research, we will examine the effects of primary breakup modeling on the spray characteristics under diesel engine conditions. KH-ACT model is applied to cater the effect of aerodynamics in an engine cylinder and also cavitations and turbulence generated inside the injector. It is a modified form of most commonly used KH model, which considers only the aerodynamically induced breakup based on the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. Our model is extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations on Open FOAM, which is an open source flow solver. Spray characteristics like Spray Penetration, Liquid length, Spray cone angle and Souter mean diameter (SMD) were validated by comparing the results of Open Foam and Matlab. Including the effects of cavitation and turbulence enhances primary breakup, leading to smaller droplet sizes, decrease in liquid penetration, and increase in the radial dispersion of spray. All these properties favor early evaporation of fuel which enhances Engine efficiency.
871
78472
Clarifications on the Damping Mechanism Related to the Hunting Motion of the Wheel Axle of a High-Speed Railway Vehicle
Abstract:
In order to explain the damping mechanism, related to the hunting motion of the wheel axle of a high-speed railway vehicle, a generalized dynamic model is proposed. Based on such model, analytic expressions for the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency are derived, without imposing restrictions on the ratio between the lateral and vertical creep coefficients. Influence of the travelling speed, wheel conicity, dimensionless mass of the wheel axle, ratio of the creep coefficients, ratio of the track span to the yawing diameter, etc., on the damping coefficient and damped natural frequency, is clarified.
870
78638
Formula Student Car: Design, Analysis and Lap Time Simulation
Abstract:
Aerodynamic forces and moments, as well as tire-road forces largely affects the maneuverability of the vehicle. Car manufacturers are largely fascinated and influenced by various aerodynamic improvements made in formula cars. There is constant effort of applying these aerodynamic improvements in road vehicles. In motor racing, the key differentiating factor in a high performance car is its ability to maintain highest possible acceleration in appropriate direction. One of the main areas of concern in motor racing is balance of aerodynamic forces and stream line the flow of air across the body of the vehicle. At present, formula racing cars are regulated by stringent FIA norms, there are constrains for dimensions of the vehicle, engine capacity etc. So one of the fields in which there is a large scope of improvement is aerodynamics of the vehicle. In this project work, an attempt has been made to design a formula- student (FS) car, improve its aerodynamic characteristics through steady state CFD simulations and simultaneously calculate its lap time. Initially, a CAD model of a formula student car is made using SOLIDWORKS as per the given dimensions and a steady-state external air-flow simulation is performed on the baseline model of the formula student car without any add on device to evaluate and analyze the air-flow pattern around the car and aerodynamic forces using FLUENT Solver. A detailed survey on different add-on devices used in racing application like: - front wing, diffuser, shark pin, T- wing etc. is made and geometric model of these add-on devices are created. These add-on devices are assembled with the baseline model. Steady state CFD simulations are done on the modified car to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of these add-on devices on the car. Later comparison of lap time simulation of the formula student car with and without the add-on devices is done with the help of MATLAB. Aerodynamic performances like: - lift, drag and their coefficients are evaluated for different configuration and design of the add-on devices at different speed of the vehicle. From parametric CFD simulations on formula student car attached with add-on devices, there is a considerable amount of drag and lift force reduction besides streamlining the airflow across the car. The best possible configuration of these add-on devices is obtained from these CFD simulations and also use of these add-on devices have shown an improvement in performance of the car which can be compared by various lap time simulations of the car.
869
76701
Increasing Efficiency, Performance and Safety of Aircraft during Takeoff and Landing by Interpreting Electromagnetism
Abstract:
Aerospace Industry has evolved over the last century and is growing by approaching towards, more fuel efficient, cheaper, simpler, convenient and safer ways of flight stages. In this paper, the accident records of aircrafts are studied and found about 71% of accidents caused on runways during Takeoff and Landing. By introducing the concept of interpreting electromagnetism, the cause of bounced touchdown and flare failure such as landing impact loads and instability could be eliminated. During Takeoff, the rate of fuel consumption is observed to be maximum. By applying concept of interpreting electromagnetism, a remarkable rate of fuel consumption is reduced, which can be used in case of emergency due to lack of fuel or in case of extended flight. A complete setup of the concept, its effects and characteristics are studied and provided with references of few popular aircrafts. By embedding series of strong and controlled electromagnets below the runway along and aside the centre line and fixed in the line of acting force through wing-fuselage aerodynamic centre. By the essence of its strength controllable nature, it can contribute to performance and fuel efficiency for aircraft. This ensures a perfect Takeoff with less fuel consumption followed by safe cruise stage, which in turn ensures a short and safe landing, eliminating the till known failures, due to bounced touchdowns and flare failure.
868
75619
Modeling and Simulation of Multiphase Evaporation in High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine
Abstract:
Diesel engines are most efficient and reliable in terms of efficiency, reliability, and adaptability. Most of the research and development up till now have been directed towards High Speed Diesel Engine, for Commercial use. In these engines, objective is to optimize maximum acceleration by reducing exhaust emission to meet international standards. In high torque low speed engines, the requirement is altogether different. These types of engines are mostly used in Maritime Industry, Agriculture Industry, Static Engines Compressors Engines, etc. On the contrary, high torque low speed engines are neglected quite often and are eminent for low efficiency and high soot emissions. One of the most effective ways to overcome these issues is by efficient combustion in an engine cylinder. Fuel spray dynamics play a vital role in defining mixture formation, fuel consumption, combustion efficiency and soot emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the fuel spray characteristics and atomization process in high torque low speed diesel engine is of great importance. Evaporation in the combustion chamber has a rigorous effect on the efficiency of the engine. In this paper, multiphase evaporation of fuel is modeled for high torque low speed engine using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. Two distinct phases of evaporation are modeled using modeling soft wares. The basic model equations are derived from the energy conservation equation and Naiver-Stokes equation. O’Rourke model is used to model the evaporation phases. The results obtained showed a generous effect on the efficiency of the engine. Evaporation rate of fuel droplet is increased with the increase in vapor pressure. An appreciable reduction in size of droplet is achieved by adding the convective heat effects in the combustion chamber. By and large, an overall increase in efficiency is observed by modeling distinct evaporation phases. This increase in efficiency is due to the fact that droplet size is reduced and vapor pressure is increased in the engine cylinder.
867
74263
A Review on the Future Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission and Its Capabilities
Abstract:
Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are active remote sensing systems independent of weather and sun illumination, two factors which usually inhibit the use of optical satellite imagery. A SAR system could acquire single, dual, compact or fully polarized SAR imagery. Each SAR imagery type has its advantages and disadvantages. The sensitivity of SAR images is a function of the: 1) band, polarization, and incidence angle of the transmitted electromagnetic signal, and 2) geometric and dielectric properties of the radar target. The RADARSAT-1 (launched on November 4, 1995), RADARSAT-2 ((launched on December 14, 2007) and RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in July 2018) are three past, current, and future Canadian SAR space missions. Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) using small satellites to further maximize the capability to carry out round-the-clock surveillance from space. The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with other government-of-Canada departments, is leading the design, development and operation of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission to help addressing key priorities. The purpose of our presentation is to give an overview of the future Canadian RCM SAR mission with its satellites. Also, the RCM SAR imaging modes along with the expected SAR products will be described. An emphasis will be given to the mission unique capabilities and characteristics, such as the new compact polarimetry SAR configuration. In this presentation, we will summarize the RCM advancement from previous RADARSAT satellite missions. Furthermore, the potential of the RCM mission for different Earth observation applications will be outlined.
866
73706
Preliminary Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel Design for Hydrogen Storage Using Netting Analysis and American Society of Mechanical Engineers Section X
Abstract:
With the move to cleaner energy applications the transport industry is working towards on-board hydrogen, or compressed natural gas-fuelled vehicles. A popular method for storage is to use composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV) because of their high strength to weight ratios. The proper design of these COPVs are according to international standards; this study aims to provide a preliminary design for a 350 Bar Type IV COPV (i.e. a polymer liner with a composite overwrap). Netting analysis, a popular analytical approach, is used as a first step to generate an initial design concept for the composite winding. This design is further improved upon by following the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel standards, Section X: Fibre-reinforced composite pressure vessels. A design program based on these two approaches is developed using Python. A numerical model of a burst test simulation is developed based on the two approaches and compared. The results indicate that the netting analysis provides a good preliminary design, while the ASME-based design is more robust and accurate as it includes a better approximation of the material behaviour. Netting analysis is an easy method to follow when considering an initial concept design for the composite winding when not all the material characteristics are known. Once these characteristics have been fully defined with experimental testing, an ASME-based design should always be followed to ensure that all designs conform to international standards and practices. Future work entails more detailed numerical testing of the design for improvement, this will include the boss design. Once finalised prototype manufacturing and experimental testing will be conducted, and the results used to improve on the COPV design.
865
74565
A Numerical Model of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Actuator for Boundary Layer Control
Abstract:
Non-thermal plasma generated by electrical discharges is considered as an effective technique to control the flow boundary layer. The first attempts with using this technique were based on corona discharge. Later, attention was focused on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Experimental investigations have confirmed the feasibility of the idea and there is an urgent need for an accurate numerical model, which can lead to a better understanding of all processes. DBD is a relatively complex phenomenon which involves electric field, numerous ionic reactions, charge transport and deposition. The existing algorithms have not been able to simulate the process for a few cycles of the supplied ac voltage, what is needed to predict the flow parameters. The presented paper investigates a model of the problem for the system consisting of a flat dielectric wall and two electrodes: one sharp and another one with a much larger radius of curvature, buried in the dielectric wall. An idealized model of DBD discharge is investigated: the ionization layer is neglected and only two basic ionic species are considered. The ion motion is traced by simultaneous solving of the electric field and charge transport equation in the time domain. The results of simulation for the total discharge current closely agree with the experimental data published in literature. The numerical results also provide interesting information about the space charge density distribution and the surface charge accumulation. Interaction between electric field and space charge produces a body force, which causes, or affects, air motion. In order to predict this, the Navier-Stokes is solved, assuming a laminar flow model. Without an external flow, the EHD flow forms a single vortex from the sharp electrode towards the buried one with the maximum velocity close to 10 m/s. When the external flow, parallel to the dielectric wall, is introduced, a boundary layer is formed: the velocity value monotonically changes from zero on the wall (non-slip boundary conditions) to a constant value far from the wall. The presence of the EHD flow significantly reduces the boundary layer thickness. For low external velocities, the velocity distribution sharply increases from zero value on the wall, reaching a maximum at some distance, then it decreases. These results also agree with the experimental data. Calculated air velocity pattern is used for predicting a drag force acting on the wall. While the EHD flow increases the viscous force, there is also the electrical force acting on the wall. It is opposite to the flow direction and for low external velocities it can lead to an apparently negative drag force. The paper will present all essential results of simulation: the electric field and space charge distribution, flow patterns and drag force for different voltage levels, voltage frequency and the external flow velocity. These results will be used as a basis for discussing the details of the process. According to the best authors’ knowledge this kind of simulation was never performed before and the proposed numerical model can be used for optimization of the actuator parameters.