International Science Index

International Journal of Geological and Environmental Engineering

668
78795
Real-Time Monitoring Approaches of Groundwater Conductivity and Level to Pre-Alert the Seawater Intrusion in Sand Coast of Liaodong Bay of China
Abstract:
At present, many coastal areas around the world suffer from seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is the superimposed result of two factors which are nature and human social economical activities in particular area. In recent years, due to excessive exploitation of groundwater, the seawater intrusion phenomenon aggravate in coastal zone of the Bohai and Huanghai seas in our country. Moreover, with sea-level rising, the original hydrodynamic equilibrium between saltwater and freshwater has been damaged to a certain extent, and it will further aggravate seawater intrusion in the land plains. In addition, overexploitation of groundwater declined groundwater level and increase saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. Therefore, in view of the sensitivity and vulnerability of the impact of sea-level rise in the future, the risk of sea-level rise in coastal zone should be considered, reasonable exploitation, utilization and management of coastal zone’s groundwater should be formulated. The response mechanism of sea-level rise should be studied to prevent and reduce the harm of seawater intrusion, which has important theoretical and realistic significances. In this paper, through the long-term monitoring of groundwater level and conductibility in the transition region of seawater intrusion for the sand coast area, realtimely master the situation of seawater intrusion. Combined with the seasonal exploitation station of groundwater and sea level variation, early alert the seawater intrusion to prevent and reduce the harm of seawater intrusion.
667
77623
Potential Risks of Using Disconnected Composite Foundation Systems in Active Seismic Zones
Abstract:
Choosing the suitable infrastructure system is becoming more challenging with the increase in demand for heavier structures contemporarily. This is the case where piled raft foundations have been widely used around the world to support heavy structures without extensive settlement. In the latter system, piles are rigidly connected to the raft, and most of the load goes to the soil layer on which the piles are bearing. In spite of that, when soil profiles contain thicker soft clay layers near the surface, or at relatively shallow depths, it is unfavorable to use the rigid piled raft foundation system. Consequently, the disconnected piled raft system was introduced as an alternative approach for the rigidly connected system. In this system, piles are disconnected from the raft using a cushion of soil, mostly of a granular interlayer. The cushion is used to redistribute the stresses among the piles and the subsoil. Piles are also used to stiffen the subsoil, and by this way reduce the settlement without being rigidly connected to the raft. However, the seismic loading effect on such disconnected foundation systems remains a problem, since the soil profiles may include thick clay layers which raise risks of amplification of the dynamic earthquake loads. In this paper, the effects of seismic behavior on the connected and disconnected piled raft systems are studied through a numerical model using Midas GTS NX Software. The study concerns the soil-structure interaction and the expected behavior of the systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each foundation approach are studied, and a comparison between the results are presented to show the effects of using disconnected piled raft systems in highly seismic zones. This was done by showing the excitation amplification in each of the foundation systems.
666
76558
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues
Abstract:
This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.
665
76623
Microdiamond and Moissanite Inclusions in Garnets from Pohorje Mountains, Eastern Alps, Slovenia
Abstract:
Natural microdiamonds and moissanite (SiC) can form during the orogenic events under ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions (UHP), when parts of Earth’s crust are subducted to extreme depths. So far, such processes were identified only in few places on the Earth, and therefore, represent unique opportunity to study the evolution of the Earth’s deep interior. An important discovery of microdiamonds and moissanite was reported from Pohorje, (Slovenia), where they occurred as single or polyphase inclusions in garnets. Metasedimentary rocks from Pohorje are predominantly gneisses representing parts of the Austroalpine metamorphic units of the Eastern Alps. During Cretaceous orogeny, (ca. 95–92 Ma) continental crustal rocks were deeply subducted to the mantle depths (below 100 km) and metamorphosed at pressures exceeding 3.5 GPa and temperatures between 800–850 °C. Microstructural and phase analysis of the inclusions as well as detailed elemental analysis of host garnets were carried out combining several analytical techniques: optical microscope in plane polarized transmitted light, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) and field-emission scanning microscope (FEG-SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Micro-Raman analysis revealed sharp, first order diamond bands sometimes accompanied by graphite bands implying that transformation of diamond back to graphite occurred. To study the chemical and crystallographic relationship between microdiamonds and co-inclusions, advanced techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied, which included high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), combined with EDS and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). To prepare electron transparent TEM lamellae selectively a dual-beam Focused Ion Beam/SEM (FIB/SEM) was employed. Detailed study of TEM lamellae, which was cross-sectioned from the highly faceted inclusion body located within the host garnet crystal matrix, revealed rich and rather complex internal structure. Namely, the negative crystal facets of the main inclusion body were typically decorated with up to 1 μm thick amorphous layer, reflecting the general garnet composition with slight variations in Fe/Ca content. Within these layers, ELNES analysis revealed the presence of a 28–30 nm thick layer of amorphous carbon. The very last section of this layer corresponds to composition of SiO2. Within the inclusion, besides diamond and moissanite alumosilicate mineral with pronounced layered structure, iron sulfides and chlorine were identified under TEM and CO2 and CH4 using Raman. Moissanite is found as single crystal or composed from numerous highly textured nano-crystals with the average size of 10 nm. Moissanite inclusions were found embedded inside the amorphous crust implying that moissanite crystalized well before the deposition of the amorphous layer. From the microstructural, crystallographic and chemical observations so far we can deduce, that polyphase inclusions in diamond bearing garnets from Pohorje most probably crystallized from reduced supercritical fluids. Based on layered interface structure of the host mineral multiphase process of crystallization is possible. The presence of microdiamonds and moissanite in rocks from Pohorje demonstrates that these parts of the Eastern Alps were subducted to extreme depths, and were subsequently exhumed back to the Earth's surface without complete breakdown of UHP mineral phases, allowing a rear and exceptional opportunity to study them in-situ.
664
77664
Using Computational Fluid Dynamics to Model and Design a Preventative Application for Strong Wind
Abstract:
Typhoons are one of the major types of disasters that affect Taiwan each year and that cause severe damage to agriculture. Indeed, the damage exacted during a typical typhoon season can be up to $1 billion, and is responsible for nearly 75% of yearly agricultural losses. However, there is no consensus on how to reduce the damage caused by the strong winds and heavy precipitation engendered by typhoons. One suggestion is the use of windbreak nets, which are a low-cost and easy-to-use disaster mitigation strategy for crop production. In the present study, we conducted an evaluation to determine the optimal conditions of a windbreak net by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. This model may be used as a reference for crop protection. The results showed that CFD simulation validated windbreak nets of different mesh sizes and heights in the experimental area; thus, CFD is an efficient tool for evaluating the effectiveness of windbreak nets. Specifically, the effective wind protection length and height were found to be 6 and 1.3 times the length and height of the windbreak net, respectively. During a real typhoon, maximum wind gusts of 18 m s-1 can be reduced to 4 m s-1 by using a windbreak net that has a 70% blocking rate. In short, windbreak nets are significantly effective in protecting typhoon-affected areas.
663
77769
Applying Unmanned Aerial Vehicle on Agricultural Damage: A Case Study of the Meteorological Disaster on Taiwan Paddy Rice
Abstract:
Taiwan locates at the west of Pacific Ocean and intersects between continental and marine climate. Typhoons frequently strike Taiwan and come with meteorological disasters, i.e., heavy flooding, landslides, loss of life and properties, etc. Global climate change brings more extremely meteorological disasters. So, develop techniques to improve disaster prevention and mitigation is needed, to improve rescue processes and rehabilitations is important as well. In this study, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are applied to take instant images for improving the disaster investigation and rescue processes. Paddy rice fields in the central Taiwan are the study area. There have been attacked by heavy rain during the monsoon season in June 2016. UAV images provide the high ground resolution (3.5cm) with 3D Point Clouds to develop image discrimination techniques and digital surface model (DSM) on rice lodging. Firstly, image supervised classification with Maximum Likelihood Method (MLD) is used to delineate the area of rice lodging. Secondly, 3D point clouds generated by Pix4D Mapper are used to develop DSM for classifying the lodging levels of paddy rice. As results, discriminate accuracy of rice lodging is 85% by image supervised classification, and the classification accuracy of lodging level is 87% by DSM. Therefore, UAVs not only provide instant images of agricultural damage after the meteorological disaster, but the image discriminations on rice lodging also reach acceptable accuracy (>85%). In the future, technologies of UAVs and image discrimination will be applied to different crop fields. The results of image discrimination will be overlapped with administrative boundaries of paddy rice, to establish GIS-based assist system on agricultural damage discrimination. Therefore, the time and labor would be greatly reduced on damage detection and monitoring.
662
76384
Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits
Abstract:
Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. About 70 kilometres of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of Ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea; this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices. The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size < 0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains have been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.
661
67207
Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion
Abstract:
The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.
660
77593
4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea
Abstract:
This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. The use of underwater photogrammetry in archaeology can be traced back as early as the 1980s, and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool. Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is < 0.5m, reducing its implementation on submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, 5K cameras), this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Late Prehistoric (5000 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions ( > 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.
659
76576
3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure
Abstract:
Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.
658
76268
Geoelectrical Resistivity Method in Aquifer Characterization at Opic Estate, Isheri-Osun River Basin, South Western Nigeria
Abstract:
Investigation was carried out at Opic Estate in Isheri-Osun River Basin environment using Electrical Resistivity method to study saltwater intrusion into fresh water aquifer system from the proximal estuarine water body. The investigation is aimed at aquifer characterisation using electrical resistivity method in order to provide the depth to which fresh water fit for both domestic and industrial consumption. The 2D Electrical Resistivity and Vertical Electrical Resistivity techniques alongside Laboratory analysis of water samples obtained from the boreholes were adopted. Three traverses were investigated using Wenner and Pole-Dipole array with multi-electrode system consisting of 84 electrodes and a spread of 581, 664 and 830m were attained on the traverses. The main lithologies represented in the study area are Sand, Clay and Clayey Sand of which Sand constitutes the aquifer in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding data obtained at different lateral distance on the traverses have indicated that the water in the aquifer in the subsurface is brackish. Brackish water is represented by low electrical resistivity value signature while fresh water is characterized by relatively high electrical resistivity and in some region, fresh water is existent at depth greater than 200m. Results of laboratory analysis of samples showed that the pH, salinity, total dissolved solid and conductivity indicated existence of water with poor quality, indicating that salinity, TDS, and Conductivity is higher in the Northern part of the study area. The 2D electrical resistivity and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods indicate that fresh water region is at ≥ 200m depth. Aquifers not fit for domestic use in the study area occur downwards to about 200m in depth. In conclusion, it is recommended that wells should be sunk beyond 220m for the possible procurement of consumable fresh water.
657
68683
Most Recent Lifespan Estimate for the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Computed by Using Borland and Miller Method and Mass Balance in Brazil, Paraguay
Abstract:
Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant is settled on the Paraná River, which is a natural boundary between Brazil and Paraguay; thus, the facility is shared by both countries. Itaipu Power Plant is the biggest hydroelectric generator in the world, and provides clean and renewable electrical energy supply for 17% and 76% of Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The plant started its generation in 1984. It counts on 20 Francis turbines and has installed capacity of 14,000 MWh. Its historic generation record occurred in 2016 (103,098,366 MWh), and since the beginning of its operation until the last day of 2016 the plant has achieved the sum of 2,415,789,823 MWh. The distinct sedimentologic aspects of the drainage area of Itaipu Power Plant, from its stretch upstream (Porto Primavera and Rosana dams) to downstream (Itaipu dam itself), were taken into account in order to best estimate the increase/decrease in the sediment yield by using data from 2001 to 2016. Such data are collected through a network of 14 automatic sedimentometric stations managed by the company itself and operating in an hourly basis, covering an area of around 136,000 km² (92% of the incremental drainage area of the undertaking). Since 1972, a series of lifespan studies for the Itaipu Power Plant have been made, being first assessed by Sir Hans Albert Einstein, at the time of the feasibility studies for the enterprise. From that date onwards, eight further studies were made through the last 44 years aiming to confer more precision upon the estimates based on more updated data sets. From the analysis of each monitoring station, it was clearly noticed strong increase tendencies in the sediment yield through the last 14 years, mainly in the Iguatemi, Ivaí, São Francisco Falso and Carapá Rivers, the latter situated in Paraguay, whereas the others are utterly in Brazilian territory. Five lifespan scenarios considering different sediment yield tendencies were simulated with the aid of the softwares SEDIMENT and DPOSIT, both developed by the author of the present work. Such softwares thoroughly follow the Borland & Miller methodology (empirical method of area-reduction). The soundest scenario out of the five ones under analysis indicated a lifespan foresight of 168 years, being the reservoir only 1.8% silted by the end of 2016, after 32 years of operation. Besides, the mass balance in the reservoir (water inflows minus outflows) between 1986 and 2016 shows that 2% of the whole Itaipu lake is silted nowadays. Owing to the convergence of both results, which were acquired by using different methodologies and independent input data, it is worth concluding that the mathematical modeling is satisfactory and calibrated, thus assigning credibility to this most recent lifespan estimate.
656
76547
Effect of Wettability Alteration on Production Performance in Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs
Abstract:
In tight oil reservoirs, wettability alteration has generally been considered as an effective way to remove fracturing fluid retention on the surface of the fracture and consequently improved oil production. However, there is a lack of a reliable productivity prediction model to show the relationship between the wettability and oil production in tight oil well. In this paper, a new oil productivity prediction model of immiscible oil-water flow and miscible CO₂-oil flow accounting for wettability is developed. This mathematical model is established by considering two different length scales: nonporous network and propped fractures. CO₂ flow diffuses in the nonporous network and high velocity non-Darcy flow in propped fractures are considered by taking into account the effect of wettability alteration on capillary pressure and relative permeability. A laboratory experiment is also conducted here to validate this model. Laboratory experiments have been designed to compare the water saturation profiles for different contact angle, revealing the fluid retention in rock pores that affects capillary force and relative permeability. Four kinds of brines with different concentrations are selected here to create different contact angles. In water-wet porous media, as the system becomes more oil-wet, water saturation decreases. As a result, oil relative permeability increases. On the other hand, capillary pressure which is the resistance for the oil flow increases as well. The oil production change due to wettability alteration is the result of the comprehensive changes of oil relative permeability and capillary pressure. The results indicate that wettability is a key factor for fracturing fluid retention removal and oil enhancement in tight reservoirs. By incorporating laboratory test into a mathematical model, this work shows the relationship between wettability and oil production is not a simple linear pattern but a parabolic one. Additionally, it can be used for a better understanding of optimization design of fracturing fluids.
655
78180
Estimation of Source Parameters Using Extreme Points of the Scaled Potential Field
Abstract:
The characterization of the sources of gravity anomaly in the Vindhyan basin is important to constrain the basement structure for hydrocarbon exploration. The Depth from Extreme Points (DEXP) is a recent method to delineate such problems. In this method, scaling function which is a function of altitude is used to characterize the scaling behavior of homogeneous field. It determines the depth to sources of bodies like sphere, cylinder, dike, sill, etc. using extreme points of the scaled potential field. The stability of method is checked by adding Gaussian noises to the magnetic anomaly related to a homogeneous sphere. It also determines structural index (shape) of the source independently. The method is tested on the synthetic gravity anomalies of the sphere and elongated prism. For these cases, the estimated depths and structural index are close to assumed one. The technique can be used for thickness estimation of sub surface sources. The method is also applied to a gravity data along a profile in Jabera-Damoh region, Vindhyan basin, central India. The results give information about the depths of shallower sources and deeper crystalline basement. The results show that the shallow features represent high-density material which is underlain by the combination of high and low-density material of crystalline basement along both sides. The results on synthetic and real gravity data are discussed to show the usefulness and applicability of the methodology.
654
76582
Nature of Forest Fragmentation Owing to Human Population along Elevation Gradient in Different Countries in Hindu Kush Himalaya Mountains
Abstract:
Large numbers of people living in and around the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH) region, depends on this diverse mountainous region for ecosystem services. Following the global trend, this region also experiencing rapid population growth, and demand for timber and agriculture land. The eight countries sharing the HKH region have different forest resources utilization and conservation policies that exert varying forces in the forest ecosystem. This created a variable spatial as well altitudinal gradient in rate of deforestation and corresponding forest patch fragmentation. The quantitative relationship between fragmentation and demography has not been established before for HKH vis-à-vis along elevation gradient. This current study was carried out to attribute the overall and different nature in landscape fragmentations along the altitudinal gradient with the demography of each sharing countries. We have used the tree canopy cover data derived from Landsat data to analyze the deforestation and afforestation rate, and corresponding landscape fragmentation observed during 2000 – 2010. Area-weighted mean radius of gyration (AMN radius of gyration) was computed owing to its advantage as spatial indicator of fragmentation over non-spatial fragmentation indices. Using the subtraction method, the change in fragmentation was computed during 2000 – 2010. Using the tree canopy cover data as a surrogate of forest cover, highest forest loss was observed in Myanmar followed by China, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, and Afghanistan. However, the sequence of fragmentation was different after the maximum fragmentation observed in Myanmar followed by India, China, Bangladesh, and Bhutan; whereas increase in fragmentation was seen following the sequence of as Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Using SRTM-derived DEM, we observed higher rate of fragmentation up to 2400m that corroborated with high human population for the year 2000 and 2010. To derive the nature of fragmentation along the altitudinal gradients, the Statistica software was used, where the user defined function was utilized for regression applying the Gauss-Newton estimation method with 50 iterations. We observed overall logarithmic decrease in fragmentation change (area-weighted mean radius of gyration), forest cover loss and population growth during 2000-2010 along the elevation gradient with very high R2 values (i.e., 0.889, 0.895, 0.944 respectively). The observed negative logarithmic function with the major contribution in the initial elevation gradients suggest to gap filling afforestation in the lower altitudes to enhance the forest patch connectivity. Our finding on the pattern of forest fragmentation and human population across the elevation gradient in HKH region will have policy level implication for different nations and would help in characterizing hotspots of change. Availability of free satellite derived data products on forest cover and DEM, grid-data on demography, and utility of geospatial tools helped in quick evaluation of the forest fragmentation vis-a-vis human impact pattern along the elevation gradient in HKH.
653
77827
Seismic Random Noise Attenuation Based on Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model
Abstract:
In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic random noise by preserving important features and information about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method is derived. We test the effectiveness of the proposed method for synthetic and real seismic data sets, and the denoised result is compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising algorithm.
652
74760
Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilain Disc Specimens
Abstract:
Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. failure of rock is a dynamic, gradual and cumulative process of nucleation, growth, propagation, coalescence of micro-cracks, which is a non-equilibrium, non-linear evolutionary process. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (Onyx Marble, Sandstone and soft Limestone) with different brittleness and Sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.
651
74897
An Approach for Determination of Shotcrete Thickness in Underground Structures
Abstract:
An intrinsic property of rock mass known as rock bolt supporting factor (RSF) or rock bolting capability of rock mass was developed and used for explanation of the mechanism of rock bolting practice. Based on the theory of RSF, numeral values can be assigned to each given rock mass to show the capability of that rock mass to be reinforced by rock bolting. For determination of shotcrete thickness, both safety and cost must be taken into account. The present paper introduces a scientific approach for determination of the necessary shotcrete thickness in underground structures for support purposes using the concept of rock bolt supporting factor (RSF). The proposed approach makes the outcome of shotcrete design one step more accurate than before. The actual dataset of 500 meters of Alborz Tunnel length is used as an example of the application of the approach.
650
77977
Petroleum Source Potential of Tertiary Carbonaceous Mudstones, Shales and Sandstones of Eastern Chenor, Onshore Penyu Basins, Pahang, Malaysia
Abstract:
Malaysia and Asian region have a number of petroleum-bearing sedimentary basins commonly associated with coal and carbonaceous mudstone, and shale. Mudrocks, in particular shales, are common source rocks of conventional petroleum resources whilst coal, although a source for conventional liquid hydrocarbons, are more widespread as unconventional resources, such as coal bed methane (CBM). These organic-rich sedimentary facies are known to act as petroleum source rocks within offshore Peninsular Malaysian basins, such as Malay Basin and Penyu Basin. In this study, carbonaceous mudstones, shales and sandstones in eastern Chenor, Pahang have been investigated using organic geochemical and petrological methods which also include Micro-CT (computed tomography) imaging to evaluate the petroleum source potential. The analysed Tertiary sediments of the eastern Chenor area are of low thermal maturity based on the pyrolysis Tmax (
649
73869
Analysis of Production Forecasting in Unconventional Gas Resources Development Using Machine Learning and Data-Driven Approach
Abstract:
Unconventional gas resources have dramatically changed the future energy landscape. Unlike conventional gas resources, the key challenges in unconventional gas have been the requirement that apply to different approach for production forecasting due to uncertainly and complexity of fluid flow. Therefore, it is important that accurate production forecasting in unconventional gas resources. In this paper, we present a production forecasting workflow involving machine learning and data-driven approach which is a straightforward process, production correlation of obtaining information from various data sets to perform production forecasting of unconventional gas resources. This study takes advantage of applying various machine learning method in order to investigate the impact of native and design parameters on production as well as optimizing the predictive model using artificial neural network method. We applied to a Eagle Ford Shale asset that includes 200 horizontal wells from 3 county-Webb, La Salle, Dimmit to make data sets for Input- output of the prediction model. The proposed workflow involves using decision of data sets to train and clustering using machine learning and importance weight analysis for input data of predictive model which, subsequently, is used to predict the well production and performance of both existing wells and new planed wells. The proposed method can be used as assistance of decision making process that employs various data from native and design parameters for forecasting of existing wells and new wells in unconventional resources. It is not only useful for evaluating the effects of various parameters on productivity, but also provide a reliable approach to predict well production towards different completion plan in anywhere filed.
648
73450
Dynamic Change of Floods Disaster Monitoring for River Central Bar by Remote Sensing Time-Series Images
Abstract:
The spatial extent and area of central river bars can always vary due to the impact of water level, sediment supply and human activities. In 2016, a catastrophic flood disaster caused by sustained and heavy rainfall happened in the middle and lower Yangtze River. The flood led to the most serious economic and social loss since 1954, and strongly affected the central river bar. It is essential to continuously monitor the dynamics change of central bars because it can avoid frequent field measurements in central bars before and after the flood disaster and is helpful for flood warning. This paper focused on the dynamic change of central bars of Phoenix bar and Changsha bar in the Yangtze River in 2016. In this study, GF-1 (GaoFen-1) WFV(wide field view) data was employed owing to its high temporal frequency and high spatial resolution. A simple NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index) method was utilized for river central bar mapping. Human-checking was then performed to ensure the mapping quality. The relationship between the area of central bars and the measured water level was estimated using four mathematical models. Furthermore, a risk assessment index was proposed to map the spatial pattern of inundation risk of central bars. The results indicate a good ability of the GF-1 WFV imagery with a 16-m spatial resolution to characterize the seasonal variation of central river bars and to capture the impact of a flood disaster on the area of central bars. This paper observed a significant negative but nonlinear relationship between the water level and the area of central bars, and found that the cubic function fits best among four models (R² = 0.9839, P < 0.000001, RMSE = 0.4395). The maximum of the inundated area of central bars appeared during the rainy season on July 8, 2016, and the minimum occurred during the dry season on December 28, 2016, which are consistent with the water level measured by the hydrological station. The results derived from GF-1 data could provide a useful reference for decision-making of real-time disaster early warning and post-disaster reconstruction.
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67861
An Assessment of Health Hazards in Urban Communities: A Study of Spatial-Temporal Variations of Dengue Epidemic in Colombo, Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Dengue is an epidemic which is spread by Aedes Egyptai and Aedes Albopictus mosquitoes. The cases of dengue show a dramatic growth rate of the epidemic in urban and semi urban areas spatially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence of dengue has become a prominent reason for hospitalization and deaths in Asian countries, including Sri Lanka. During the last decade the dengue epidemic began to spread from urban to semi-urban and then to rural settings of the country. The highest number of dengue infected patients was recorded in Sri Lanka in the year 2016 and the highest number of patients was identified in Colombo district. Together with the commercial, industrial, and other supporting services, the district suffers from rapid urbanization and high population density. Thus, drainage and waste disposal patterns of the people in this area exert an additional pressure to the environment. The district is situated in the wet zone and thus low lying lands constitute the largest portion of the district. This situation additionally facilitates mosquito breeding sites. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of dengue epidemic in Kolonnawa MOH area (Medical Officer of Health) in the district of Colombo. The study was carried out using 615 recorded dengue cases in Kollonnawa MOH area during the south east monsoon season from May to September 2016. The Moran’s I and Kernel density estimation were used as analytical methods. The analysis of data was accomplished through the integrated use of ArcGIS 10.1 software packages along with Microsoft Excel analytical tool. Field observation was also carried out for verification purposes during the study period. Results of the Moran’s I index indicates that the spatial distribution of dengue cases showed a cluster distribution pattern across the area. Kernel density estimation emphasis that dengue cases are high where the population has gathered, especially in areas comprising housing schemes. Results of the Kernel Density estimation further discloses that hot spots of dengue epidemic are located in the western half of the Kolonnawa MOH area, which is close to the Colombo municipal boundary and there is a significant relationship with high population density and unplanned urban land use practices. Results of the field observation confirm that the drainage systems in these areas function poorly and careless waste disposal methods of the people further encourage mosquito breeding sites. This situation has evolved harmfully from a public health issue to a social problem, which ultimately impacts on the economy and social lives of the country.
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67478
Geographic Information System Based Multi-Criteria Subsea Pipeline Route Optimisation
Abstract:
The use of GIS as an analysis tool for engineering decision making is now best practice in the offshore industry. GIS enables multidisciplinary data integration, analysis and visualisation which allows the presentation of large and intricate datasets in a simple map-interface accessible to all project stakeholders. Presenting integrated geoscience and geotechnical data in GIS enables decision makers to be well-informed. This paper is a successful case study of how GIS spatial analysis techniques were applied to help select the most favourable pipeline route. Routing a pipeline through any natural environment has numerous obstacles, whether they be topographical, geological, engineering or financial. Where the pipeline is subjected to external hydrostatic water pressure and is carrying pressurised hydrocarbons, the requirement to safely route the pipeline through hazardous terrain becomes absolutely paramount. This study illustrates how the application of modern, GIS-based pipeline routing techniques enabled the identification of a single most-favourable pipeline route crossing of a challenging seabed terrain. Conventional approaches to pipeline route determination focus on manual avoidance of primary constraints whilst endeavouring to minimise route length. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective and is liable to bias towards the discipline and expertise that is involved in the routing process. For very short routes traversing benign seabed topography in shallow water this approach may be sufficient, but for deepwater geohazardous sites, the need for an automated, multi-criteria, and quantitative approach is essential. This study combined multiple routing constraints using modern least-cost-routing algorithms deployed in GIS, hitherto unachievable with conventional approaches. The least-cost-routing procedure begins with the assignment of geocost across the study area. Geocost is defined as a numerical penalty score representing hazard posed by each routing constraint (e.g. slope angle, rugosity, vulnerability to debris flows) to the pipeline. All geocosted routing constraints are combined to generate a composite geocost map that is used to compute the least geocost route between two defined terminals. The analyses were applied to select the most favourable pipeline route for a potential gas development in deep water. The study area is geologically complex with a series of incised, potentially active, canyons carved into a steep escarpment, with evidence of extensive debris flows. A similar debris flow in the future could cause significant damage to a poorly-placed pipeline. Protruding inter-canyon spurs offer lower-gradient options for ascending an escarpment but the vulnerability of periodic failure of these spurs is not well understood. Close collaboration between geoscientists, pipeline engineers, geotechnical engineers and of course the gas export pipeline operator guided the analyses and assignment of geocosts. Shorter route length, less severe slope angles, and geohazard avoidance were the primary drivers in identifying the most favourable route.
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67635
Geographic Information System and Ecotourism Sites Identification of Jamui District, Bihar, India
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Abstract:
In the red corridor famed for the Left Wing Extremism, lies small district of Jamui in Bihar, India. The district lies at 24º20´ N latitude and 86º13´ E longitude, covering an area of 3,122.8 km2 The undulating topography, with widespread forests provides pristine environment for invigorating experience of tourists. Natural landscape in form of forests, wildlife, rivers, and cultural landscape dotted with historical and religious places is highly purposive for tourism. The study is primarily related to the identification of potential ecotourism sites, using Geographic Information System. Data preparation, analysis and finally identification of ecotourism sites is done. Secondary data used is Survey of India Topographical Sheets with R.F.1:50,000 covering the area of Jamui district. District Census Handbook, Census of India, 2011; ERDAS Imagine and Arc View is used for digitization and the creation of DEM’s (Digital Elevation Model) of the district, depicting the relief and topography and generate thematic maps. The thematic maps have been refined using the geo-processing tools. Buffer technique has been used for the accessibility analysis. Finally, all the maps, including the Buffer maps were overlaid to find out the areas which have potential for the development of ecotourism sites in the Jamui district. Spatial data - relief, slopes, settlements, transport network and forests of Jamui District were marked and identified, followed by Buffer Analysis that was used to find out the accessibility of features like roads, railway stations to the sites available for the development of ecotourism destinations. Buffer analysis is also carried out to get the spatial proximity of major river banks, lakes, and dam sites to be selected for promoting sustainable ecotourism. Overlay Analysis is conducted using the geo-processing tools. Digital Terrain Model (DEM) generated and relevant themes like roads, forest areas and settlements were draped on the DEM to make an assessment of the topography and other land uses of district to delineate potential zones of ecotourism development. Development of ecotourism in Jamui faces several challenges. The district lies in the portion of Bihar that is part of ‘red corridor’ of India. The hills and dense forests are the prominent hideouts and training ground for the extremists. It is well known that any kind of political instability, war, acts of violence directly influence the travel propensity and hinders all kind of non-essential travels to these areas. The development of ecotourism in the district can bring change and overall growth in this area with communities getting more involved in economically sustainable activities. It is a known fact that poverty and social exclusion are the main force that pushes people, resorting towards violence. All over the world tourism has been used as a tool to eradicate poverty and generate good will among people. Tourism, in sustainable form should be promoted in the district to integrate local communities in the development process and to distribute fruits of development with equity.
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73612
Hydro-Chemical Characterization of Glacial Melt Waters Draining from Shaune Garang Glacier, Himachal Himalaya
Abstract:
A detailed study of the ion chemistry of the Shaune Garnag glacier meltwater has been carried out to assess the role of active glacier in the chemical denudation rate. The chemical compositions of various ions in meltwater of the Shaune Garang glacier were analyzed during the melting period 2015 and 2016. Total 112 of melt water samples twice in a day were collected during ablation season of 2015 and 2016. To identify various factors controlling the dissolved ionic strength of Shaune Garang Glacier meltwater statistical analysis such as correlation matrix, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and factor analysis were applied to deduce the result. Cation concentration for Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺ in the meltwater for both the years can be arranged in the order as Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺. Study showed that Ca²⁺ and HCO₃⁻ found to be dominant on the both melting period. Carbonate weathering identified as the dominant process controlling the dissolved ion chemistry of meltwater due to the high ratios of (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus TZ+ and (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus (Na⁺ + K⁺) in the study area. The cation denudation rate of the Shaune Garnag catchment is 3412.2 m⁻² a⁻¹, i.e. higher than the other glacierised catchment in the Himalaya, indicating intense chemical erosion in this catchment.
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78532
Storms Dynamics in the Black Sea in the Context of the Climate Changes
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Abstract:
The objective of the work proposed is to perform an analysis of the wave conditions in the Black Sea basin. This is especially focused on the spatial and temporal occurrences and on the dynamics of the most extreme storms in the context of the climate changes. A numerical modelling system, based on the spectral phase averaged wave model SWAN, has been implemented and validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, all along the sea. Moreover, a successive correction method for the assimilation of the satellite data has been associated with the wave modelling system. This is based on the optimal interpolation of the satellite data. Previous studies show that the process of data assimilation improves considerably the reliability of the results provided by the modelling system. This especially concerns the most sensitive cases from the point of view of the accuracy of the wave predictions, as the extreme storm situations are. Following this numerical approach, it has to be highlighted that the results provided by the wave modelling system above described are in general in line with those provided by some similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed sea basins. Simulations of this wave modelling system with data assimilation have been performed for the 30-year period 1987-2016. Considering this database, the next step was to analyze the intensity and the dynamics of the higher storms encountered in this period. According to the data resulted from the model simulations, the western side of the sea is considerably more energetic than the rest of the basin. In this western region, regular strong storms provide usually significant wave heights greater than 8m. This may lead to maximum wave heights even greater than 15m. Such regular strong storms may occur several times in one year, usually in the wintertime, or in late autumn, and it can be noticed that their frequency becomes higher in the last decade. As regards the case of the most extreme storms, significant wave heights greater than 10m and maximum wave heights close to 20m (and even greater) may occur. Such extreme storms, which in the past were noticed only once in four or five years, are more recent to be faced almost every year in the Black Sea, and this seems to be a consequence of the climate changes. The analysis performed included also the dynamics of the monthly and annual significant wave height maxima as well as the identification of the most probable spatial and temporal occurrences of the extreme storm events. Finally, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information related to the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. This environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and intense offshore and nearshore activities and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce accidents with very serious consequences.
642
78557
An Overview of the Wind and Wave Climate in the Romanian Nearshore
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Abstract:
The goal of the proposed work is to provide a more comprehensive picture of the wind and wave climate in the Romanian nearshore, using the results provided by numerical models. The Romanian coastal environment is located in the western side of the Black Sea, the more energetic part of the sea, an area with heavy maritime traffic and various offshore operations. Information about the wind and wave climate in the Romanian waters is mainly based on observations at Gloria drilling platform (70 km from the coast). As regards the waves, the measurements of the wave characteristics are not so accurate due to the method used, being also available for a limited period. For this reason, the wave simulations that cover large temporal and spatial scales represent an option to describe better the wave climate. To assess the wind climate in the target area spanning 1992–2016, data provided by the NCEP-CFSR (U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction - Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) and consisting in wind fields at 10m above the sea level are used. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the wind fields is good enough to represent the wind variability over the area. For the same 25-year period, as considered for the wind climate, this study characterizes the wave climate from a wave hindcast data set that uses NCEP-CFSR winds as input for a model system SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) based. The wave simulation results with a two-level modelling scale have been validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data. The second level of the system, with a higher resolution in the geographical space (0.02°×0.02°), is focused on the Romanian coastal environment. The main wave parameters simulated at this level are used to analyse the wave climate. The spatial distributions of the wind speed, wind direction and the mean significant wave height have been computed as the average of the total data. As resulted from the amount of data, the target area presents a generally moderate wave climate that is affected by the storm events developed in the Black Sea basin. Both wind and wave climate presents high seasonal variability. All the results are computed as maps that help to find the more dangerous areas. A local analysis has been also employed in some key locations corresponding to highly sensitive areas, as for example the main Romanian harbors.
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65896
Fluid Inclusions Analysis of Fluorite from the Hammam Jedidi District, North-Eastern Tunisia
Abstract:
Hydrothermal vein-type deposits of the Hammam Jedidi F-Ba(Pb-Zn-Cu) are hosted in Lower Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary series, and located near a very important structural lineament (NE-SW) corresponding to the Hammam Jedidi Fault in the Tunisian Dorsale. The circulation of the ore forming fluid is triggered by a regional tectonic compressive phase which occurred during the miocène time. Mineralization occurs as stratabound and vein-type orebodies adjacent to the Triassic salt diapirs and within fault in Jurassic limestone. Fluid inclusions data show that two distinct fluids were involved in the mineralisation deposition: a warmer saline fluid (180°C, 20 wt % NaCl equivalent) and cooler less saline fluid (126°C, 5wt%NaCl equivalent). The contrasting salinities and halogen ratios suggest that this two fluid derived from one of the brine originated after the dissolution of halite as suggested by its high salinity. The other end member, as indicated by the low Cl/Br ratios, acquired its low salinity by dilution of Br enriched evaporated seawater. These results are compatible with Mississippi-Valley- type mineralization.
640
78336
Balance Transfer of Heavy Metals in Marine Environments Subject to Natural and Anthropogenic Inputs: A Case Study on the Mejerda River Delta
Abstract:
Sedimentation rates and total fluxes of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cu) was measured in three different depths (10m, 20m and 40m) during March and August 2012, offshore of the Mejerda River outlet (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia). The sedimentation rates are estimated from the fluxes of the suspended particulate matter at 7.32, 5.45 and 4.39 mm y⁻¹ respectively at 10m, 20m and 40m depth. Heavy metals sequestration in sediments was determined by chemical speciation and the total metal contents in each core collected from 10, 20 and 40m depth. Heavy metals intake to the sediment was measured also from the suspended particulate matter, while the fluxes from the sediment to the water column was determined using the benthic chambers technique and from the diffusive fluxes in the pore water. Results shown that iron is the only metal for which the balance transfer between intake/uptake (45 to 117 / 1.8 to 5.8 g m² y⁻¹) and sequestration (277 to 378 g m² y⁻¹) was negative, at the opposite of the Lead which intake fluxes (360 to 480 mg m² y⁻¹) are more than sequestration fluxes (50 to 92 mg m² y⁻¹). The balance transfer is neutral for Mn, Zn, and Cu. These clearly indicate that the contributions of Mejerda have consistently varied over time, probably due to the migration of the River mouth and to the changes in the mining activity in the Mejerda catchment and the recent human activities which affect the delta area.
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73762
Accessibility Analysis of Urban Green Space in Zadar Settlement, Croatia
Abstract:
The accessibility of urban green spaces (UGS) is an integral element in the quality of life. Due to rapid urbanization, UGS studies have become a key element in urban planning. The potential benefits of space for its inhabitants are frequently analysed. A functional transport network system and the optimal spatial distribution of urban green surfaces are the prerequisites for maintaining the environmental equilibrium of the urban landscape. An accessibility analysis was conducted as part of the Urban Green Belts Project (UGB). The development of a GIS database for Zadar was the first step in generating the UGS accessibility indicator. Data were collected using the supervised classification method of multispectral LANDSAT images and manual vectorization of digital orthophoto images (DOF). An analysis of UGS accessibility according to the ANGst standard was conducted in the first phase of research. The accessibility indicator was generated on the basis of seven objective measurements, which included average UGS surface per capita and accessibility according to six functional levels of green surfaces. The generated indicator was compared with subjective measurements obtained by conducting a survey (718 respondents) within statistical units. The collected data reflected individual assessments and subjective evaluations of UGS accessibility. This study highlighted the importance of using objective and subjective measures in the process of understanding the accessibility of urban green surfaces. It may be concluded that when evaluating UGS accessibility, residents emphasize the immediate residential environment, ignoring higher UGS functional levels. It was also concluded that large areas of UGS within a city do not necessarily generate similar satisfaction with accessibility. The heterogeneity of output results may serve as guidelines for the further development of a functional UGS city network.