International Science Index

International Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences

Older Adult Grandparents' Voices as a Principle Care Giver in a Skipped-Generation Family
In Thailand, many adults in rural areas migrate to seek employ¬ment resulting in skipped-generation family where grandparents care for grandchildren with no other adults present. This is a preliminary study using qualitative case study methods, aimed to explore the situations of older adult grandparents' experiences in skipped-generation family in North-East of Thailand. Data were collected by in-depth inter¬views with 6 grandparents living in skipped-generation families; 5 females and 1 males grandparents, aged 62-75, some of them have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, during November to December, 2017. The finding themes are: ‘Caught up in the middle’: the older adults were pleased to have grandchildren but, at the same time, acknowledge the burden that this placed on them, especially when the migrant children failed to send enough money back to support the family. ‘Getting bad health’: they reported to be fatigued and stressed due to burden of caring for their grandchildren without support. This situation can aggravate problems of poor health status and be worsening economic status of the grandparents. In some cases of deprivation, the grandparents feel that having to be the sole care providers of their grandchildren can negative adversely affect their mental status. It is important to find out in other sectors similar to Thailand and lead to more in-depth research to answer the research questions about policy and social support in skipped-generation family in the future.
Strengthening Factors of Family Living with Disabilities
Thai’s families with disabilities are diverse, poor economy, low education disproportionately characterized their living that includes stress and suffering. This article reports a preliminary study using a qualitative case study with six disabilities (five physical and one mental problem) Their six family caregivers who perceived they were managing well with their conditions as well. Data were collected by in-depth interviews during November-December 2017 in North-East of Thailand. Preliminary results were found factors of moving in comprised of three themes as followings Karma: the families believe that the disability happened because of bad-karma which attached to them. From the reason, the members of families have to deserve and accept it. Family attachment: the families believe in the importance of being the family so they have to take good care in one another whether happy or suffering Community support: the families can get more to received helping hands from local health care providers and community health volunteers. These activities are very important to be representative in taking the families through health accessibility, which help them face with disabling problems. Nevertheless, the study needs further exploring on other families’ and health care team's perspective in larger scales leading to develop an appropriate health care service system which can support and promote the well-being of the families living with disabilities in the future.
Family Living with Adolescent Mother: The Consequential Effects of Adolescent Pregnancy
Adolescent pregnancy is a major global concern including Thailand, which has long adopted policies and solutions to prevent such problem. Family is one of the key strategies to drive policy achievement whereas the various families and regional differences will be challenges. This article reports a preliminary study finding using qualitative case study methods, aiming to explore the situation of families living with adolescent mother in the North Eastern of Thailand or ISAN. Data were collected by in-depth interview with six key informants; five adolescent mothers age 14- 19 years and one mother in law of adolescent mother during November to December of 2017. The preliminary suggests that firstly, the adolescent pregnancy was found to be one of the significant issues among most of the families and that adolescent mothers and their family perceived other families were also faced with this problem with despite different conditions. Secondly, the parents assumed simultaneous roles as both parents and grandparents when one of their adolescent girls became an adolescent mother. Lastly, when perceiving that their adolescent daughter became pregnant, families addressed this issue by compromise with the related parties to maintain family and social relationship. This situation can be a potential intractable problem to adolescents and their families. Families may suffer from adolescent pregnancy with respect to health, economy and other family burdens. Moreover, the national development may be affected or delayed since this group of people is considered promising human resource. It is therefore required to further conduct in-depth research to cope with this issue particularly about the policies related to adolescent pregnancy.
Caring for the Bedridden Older Members: Beliefs and Values of Northern Thai Families
In Northern Thailand, a pilot study by the qualitative data, on caring for family members with chronic illness/bedridden based on in-depth interviews of the 12 elderly caregivers in family was carried out during November to December 2017. There are four families that living with three generations in the family. This report is part of a larger study of 'The intergenerational contract of the family in long-term care for older members' to understand the situation and context related to the research questions. Content analysis was obtained and the results revealed as followings. 1) No choice and no freedom: most caregivers were asked by their family members to do the care giving roles because of various appropriate reasons and they could not refuse and felt like having no freedom. 2) ‘Katanyu’ to the parents: The Thai ideology of making merit by taking care of parents was beliefs to do the best in their caregiver roles. 3) The family commitments: The issues of family caring and relationships were the key value of keeping family members to take care of older members with chronic illness/bedridden. The preliminary findings can be beneficial for other regions and will lead to in-depth explore to answer the research questions of the larger study in the future.
Interdisciplinary Teaching for Nursing Students: A Key to Understanding Teamwork
One of the most important factors of professional health treatment is teamwork, in which each discipline contributes its expert knowledge, thus ensuring quality and a high standard of care as well as efficient communication (one of the International Patient Safety Goals). However, in most countries, students are educated separately by each health discipline. They are exposed to teamwork only during their clinical experience, which in some cases is short and skill-oriented. In addition, health organizations in most countries are hierarchical and although changes have occurred in the hierarchy of the medical system, there are still disciplines that underrate the unique contributions of other health professionals, thus, young graduates of health professions develop and base their perception of their peers from other disciplines on insufficient knowledge. In order to establish a wide-ranging perception among nursing students as to the contribution of different health professionals to the health of their patients, students at the Clalit Nursing Academy, Rabin Campus (Dina), Israel, participated in an interdisciplinary clinical discussion with students from several different professions, other than nursing, who were completing their clinical experience at Rabin Medical Center in medicine, health psychology, social work, audiology, physiotherapy and occupational therapy. The discussion was led by a medical-surgical nursing instructor. Their tutors received in advance, a case report enabling them to prepare the students as to how to present their professional theories and interventions regarding the case. Mutual stimulation and acknowledgment of the unique contribution of each part of the team enriched the nursing students' understanding as to how their own nursing interventions could be integrated into the entire process towards a safe and speedy recovery of the patient.
Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, Zhongwei Guan
Violence against health professionals by patients and their families have recently become a disturbing phenomenon worldwide, exacting psychological as well as economic tolls. Health workplaces in Israel (e.g. hospitals and H.M.O clinics) provide workshops for their employees, supplying them with coping strategies. However, these workshops do not focus on nursing students, who are also subjected to this violence. Their learning environment is no longer as protective as it used to be. Furthermore, coping with violence was not part of the curriculum for Israeli nursing students. Thus, based on human aggression theories which depict the pivotal role of the professional's correct response in preventing the onset of an aggressive response or the escalation of violence, a workshop was developed for undergraduate nursing students at the Clalit Nursing Academy, Rabin Campus (Dina), Israel. The workshop aimed at reducing students' anxiety vis a vis the aggressive patient or family in addition to strengthening their ability to cope with such situations. The students practiced interpersonal skills, especially relevant to early detection of potential violence, as well as ‘a correct response’ reaction to the violence, thus developing the necessary steps to be implemented when encountering violence in the workplace. In order to assess the efficiency of the workshop, the participants filled out a questionnaire comprising knowledge and self-efficacy scales. Moreover, the replies of the 23 participants in this workshop were compared with those of 24 students who attended a standard course on interpersonal communication. Students' self-efficacy and knowledge were measured in both groups before and after the course. A statistically significant interaction was found between group (workshop/standard course) and time (before/after) as to the influence on students' self-efficacy (p=0.004) and knowledge (p=0.007). Nursing students, who participated in this ‘coping with workplace violence’ workshop, gained knowledge, confidence and a sense of self-efficacy with regard to workplace violence. Early detection of signs of imminent violence amongst patients or families and the prevention of its escalation, as well as the ability to manage the threatening situation when occurring, are acquired skills. Encouraging nursing students to learn and practice these skills may enhance their ability to cope with these unfortunate occurrences.
The Determination of Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, Anxiety and Depression Levels among Patients with Stoma
This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner, in order to determine the self-esteem, life satisfaction and depression/anxiety levels of the patients with stoma. The study was conducted between June 15, 2016 and June 15, 2017 among 196 oncology patients that were hospitalized in the general surgery clinic of a public hospital in Turkey. The case group consisted of 98 cancer patients with stoma and the control group consisted of 98 cancer patients without stoma. The data were collected through the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a 21-question survey that aimed to determine the sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients. The data were analyzed with percentage analysis, Mann Whitney U-test, Chi-square test and Spearmen’s correlation test. It was determined that for the case group; 44.9% had colon cancer, 29.6% had rectal cancer; 50% underwent temporary colostomia, 15.3% underwent permanent colostomia, 34.7% underwent temporary ileostomy. The experimental group's findings for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Depression subscale were 64 (20 - 84), 17 (5 - 38), 10 (1 - 18), and 9 (1 - 19), respectively. The control group's findings for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Depression Subscale were 68 (32 - 92), 21 (7 - 31), 8.5 (1 - 18), and 8 (1 - 18), respectively. It was found that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Anxiety Subscale findings were significantly different for the experimental and control groups (p
The Use of Complementary and Alternative Treatment Applications among Lung Cancer Patients
This study was conducted with lung cancer patients to determine the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) applications. The study was conducted in a descriptive manner. The data were collected between September 30, 2016 and December 30, 2017 with patients that were hospitalized in the oncology and chest diseases clinics, from 104 voluntary oncology patients. The data collection was conducted using a 57-question survey form that was prepared in accordance with the literature, that aimed to determine the CAM application properties of the patients. The institution has given a written permission and all the patients have signed written consent forms prior to filling out the survey form. The data were analyzed using percentage analyses and the chi-square test. It was determined that 27% of the subjects have used at least one CAM method, 49.3% of them used the most herbal treatment methods in CAM methods, 25.1% used ginger and 25% continued the use of the CAM together with the cancer treatment. 85.7% of the patients used the CAM method as they believed it might be beneficial, 96.4% used the CAM method together with medical treatment, 67.9% had shared this situation with the medical professionals, 75% did not report any adverse effect associated with the CAM, and 64.3% indicated that they were open to applying a CAM method that is recommended by their doctor. The vast majority of the patients participating in the study were found to benefit most from the herbal treatment methods. It is concluded that the medical professional should determine the application of the CAMs that the patient uses without being judgemental and that they inform the patient and relatives regarding the possible adverse effects.
Sleep Quality and Associated Risk Factors among Oncology Patients in Turkey
This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner, in order to determine the factors that influence the sleep quality in oncology patients. The study was conducted between December 31, 2016 and December 31, 2017 with the participation of 238 patients that were hospitalized in a public hospital in Turkey. The case group consisted of 119 inpatients who were diagnosed with cancer and hospitalized in the surgery department. The control group consisted of 119 inpatients who were diagnosed with any acute or chronic condition other than cancer and hospitalized in other clinics. The control group was chosen to match the case group in sociodemographic properties. The sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients were determined using a 29-question survey and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index is scored between 0 and 21: a score equal to and lower than 5 indicates "good sleep quality" and a score above 5 indicates "bad sleep quality". Percentage analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for evaluating the data. In the case group patients, 33.6% were diagnosed with stomach cancer, 54.6% were in Stage II of cancer, 98.3% underwent surgical treatment and 28% underwent chemotherapy, 89.7% had treatment-related pain, 52.9% had a chronic disease together with cancer, 63% had their sleep quality partially influenced by environmental factors. The median Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 5 for the study group and 4 for the control group. It was observed that some of sociodemographic and clinical properties influenced the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. This study has found that both the case and control groups had good sleep quality. It is recommended that nursing interventions should be planned in order to improve the sleep quality of the patients.
The Factors That Influence the Self-Sufficiency and the Self-Efficacy Levels among Oncology Patients
This study was conducted in a descriptive and cross-sectional manner to determine that factors that influence the self-efficacy and self-sufficiency levels among oncology patients. The research was conducted between January 24, 2017 and September 24, 2017 in the oncology and hematology departments of a university hospital in Turkey with 179 voluntary inpatients. The data were collected through the Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale and a 29-question survey, which was prepared in order to determine the sociodemographic and clinical properties of the patients. The Self-Sufficiency/Self-Efficacy Scale is a Likert-type scale with 23 articles. The scale scores range between 23 and 115. A high final score indicates a good self-sufficiency/self-efficacy perception for the individual. The data were analyzed using percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA, Mann Whitney U-test, Kruskal Wallis test and Tukey test. The demographic data of the subjects were as follows: 57.5% were male and 42.5% were female, 82.7% were married, 46.4% were primary school graduate, 36.3% were housewives, 19% were employed, 93.3% had social security, 52.5% had matching expenses and incomes, 49.2% lived in the center of the city. The mean age was 57.1±14.6. It was determined that 22.3% of the patients had lung cancer, 19.6% had leukemia, and 43.6% had a good overall condition. The mean self-sufficiency/self-efficacy score was 83,00 (41-115). It was determined that the patients' self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores were influenced by some of their socio-demographic and clinical properties. This study has found that the patients had high self-sufficiency/self-efficacy scores. It is recommended that the nursing care plans should be developed to improve their self-sufficiency/self-efficacy levels in the light of the patients' sociodemographic and clinical properties.
The Holistic Nursing WebQuest: An Interactive Teaching/Learning Strategy
WebQuests are an internet-based interactive teaching/learning tool and utilize a scaffolded methodology. WebQuests employ critical thinking, afford inquiry-based constructivist learning, and readily employ Bloom’s Taxonomy. WebQuests have generally been used as instructional technology tools in primary and secondary education and have more recently grown in popularity in higher education. The study of the efficacy of WebQuests as an instructional approach to learning, however, has been limited, particularly in the nursing education arena. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine nursing students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the Nursing WebQuest as a teaching/learning strategy for holistic nursing-related content. Quantitative findings (N=42) suggested that learners were active participants, used reflection, thought of new ideas, used analysis skills, discovered something new, and assessed the worth of something while taking part in the WebQuests. Qualitative findings indicated that participants found WebQuest positives as easy to understand and navigate; clear and organized; interactive; good alternative learning format, and used a variety of quality resources. Participants saw drawbacks as requiring additional time and work; and occasional failed link or link causing them to lose their location in the WebQuest. Recommendations include using larger sample size and more diverse populations from various programs and universities. In conclusion, WebQuests were found to be an effective teaching/learning tool as positively assessed by study participants.
Maternal Perception of Using Epidural Anesthesia and the Childbirth Outcomes
Labor pain is one of the most common concerns of pregnant women, thus women are in need of possible options they could take to control the pain. So, this study aimed to explore maternal perception of epidural anesthesia and to compare the childbirth outcomes according to the use of epidural anesthesia. For this descriptive study, women who were over 36 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from an out-patient obstetric clinic in a public hospital in Seoul. Women were included in the study if agreed to participate, were pregnant singleton, without pregnancy complication, and expecting a natural birth. Data collection was done twice, the first one at the prenatal care visit and the second one at an in-patient ward on 2nd day postpartum. The instrument of the beliefs about epidural anesthesia, one item of asking intention to use epidural anesthesia, demographics, and obstetrical characteristics were incorporated into a questionnaire. One nurse researcher performed data collection with the structured questionnaire after the approval of the institutional review board. At the initial data collection 133 women were included, while 117 were retained at the second point after excluded 13 women due to the occurrence of complications. Analyses were done by chi-square, t-test, and ANOVA using the SPSS program. Women were aged 32.5 years old, 22.2% were over 35 years old. The average gestational age was 38.5 weeks, and 67.5% were nulliparous. Out of 38 multiparous women, 20 women (52.6%) had received epidural anesthesia in the previous delivery. At the initial interview, 62.6% (n=73) of women wanted to receive epidural anesthesia while 22.4% answered not decided and 15.4% did not want to take the procedure. However, there were changes in proportions between women’s intention to take it and actual procedures done, particularly, two-thirds of women (n=26) who had been undecided were found to receive epidural anesthesia during labor. There was a significant difference in the perception of epidural anesthesia measured before delivery between women who received and not received it (t=3.68, p < .001). Delivery outcomes were statistically different between the two groups in delivery mode (chi-square=8.64, p=.01), O₂ supply during labor (chi-square =5.01, p=.03), duration of 2nd stage of labor (t=3.70, p < .001), and arterial cord blood pH (t=2.64, p=.01). Interestingly, there was no difference in labor pain perceived between women with and without epidural anesthesia. Considering the preference and use of epidural anesthesia, health professionals need to assess coping ability of women undergoing delivery and to provide accurate information about pain control to support their decision making and eventually to enhance delivery outcomes for mothers and neonates.
Primary and Specialized Palliative Care in Switzerland: A Nationwide Survey on Barriers and Facilitators of Collaboration and Coordination
In order to achieve high quality and cost efficiency in palliative care, inter-professional collaboration is imperative. Since each canton follows their own informal guidelines on coordination and collaboration in palliative care, the landscape of palliative care in Switzerland is fragmented. This fragmented palliative care landscape causes nationwide inefficiency in palliative care provision, especially regarding collaboration and coordination between primary (PPC) and specialized palliative care (SPC). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate barriers and facilitators of collaboration and coordination between PPC and SPC service providers in Switzerland. Barriers and facilitators of collaboration and coordination between PPC and SPC will be identified with a nationwide survey. Starting from a theoretical model of healthcare services, two slightly different questionnaires are being constructed for PPC and for SPC, in order to answer the research questions. Planned group sizes are N=2000. The questionnaires are being delivered via email and sent to the addresses of professionals from the national health care registry in hardcopy form in German, French, and Italian language. The questionnaire is based on the Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration, while additional items are being drawn from important subsections of Bainbridge`s conceptual framework for healthcare services. Further items concerning basic demographic data of participants are being included. Response data gathered from the survey will be analyzed for objective measures of the services provided, and of the interdisciplinary interactions (e.g. frequency, quality, and efficacy). Mean scores of subscales will be reported and regression analyses will be conducted. Potential confounding factors will be identified and statistically controlled for. Preliminary results indicate that perceived barriers and facilitators of coordination and collaboration between SPC and PPC include aspects of role distribution in care teams, education and training, information transfer between and within PPC and SPC and economic and organizational factors. Specific patterns, characteristics and 'best practices' of collaboration and coordination between specialized and primary palliative care will be highlighted. Through the identification of barriers and facilitators, alternative ways of optimizing service integration in palliative care will be outlined. Our results will influence future supply planning in community-based palliative care across Switzerland.
Family Engagement in the Process of Withdrawal of Life Supporting Measures in Intensive Care: A Systematic Literature Review
Background: Due to advances in medical treatments and technology, it is common for death within intensive care to occur after a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatments. Family members are frequently asked to assist during the decision-making process on behalf of their incapacitated relative. Aim: The aim of this research was to synthesise current literature to review the way in which families engage with the process of withdrawal of life supporting measures in intensive care. Method: A systematic literature review was undertaken, searching key databases, including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, MEDLINE, Johanna Briggs Institute, PsychINFO and British Nursing Index, during the period of 2007 to 2017. Findings and discussion: The literature highlighted four key themes: factors that enabled engagement in surrogate decision-making; factors that hindered engagement in surrogate decision-making; the process of decision-making for families and perceptions following decision-making. The factors that enabled surrogate decision-making included: time, family and support, and these were provided by many methods including nurses, communication, reassurance, coping strategies and faith or spirituality. Some of these factors were also factors that hindered surrogate decision makers, depending upon how they were undertaken within practice. The factors that were highlighted as hindering surrogate decision makers within the literature mostly focused around communication, they included unavailability, wanting more information, receiving conflicting information, a lack of clarity in the information received, delayed information giving, insensitive language and the environment. The factors that enabled decision-making can also become factors that hinder it if they are not completed correctly. Likewise, factors hindering the surrogate decision-making process can become enablers if strategies are put in place to overcome these. Both the wish to be involved and involvement of families during the decision-making phase varied. Both communication and support given to families during the decision-making process were key factors that affected their engagement surrounding decision-making. Conclusion: Communication emerged as a central concept that enabled or hindered best practice. Some families wished to have the final decision, some wanted a joint decision with physicians, whilst others wished for physicians to make recommendations. Interestingly, some families reported that having involvement with decision-making allowed them to gain back control and counteract the distress they were experiencing due to the uncertainty prior to the decision. Another important factor highlighted was the fact that participants were left with unanswered questions or doubts about decisions, with some participants reporting that they were not sure whether they had been given all the information, and as a result, they were unsure whether the right decision was made. Therefore, it is important to ensure that each family’s information needs are assessed, to reduce the distress caused. Therefore, an individualised approach to involving family members within the decision-making phase is essential to ensure that families are adequately supported, with the desired level of information to help them make decisions, at an already stressful time and reduce the potential of ongoing psychological issues in the future, if they wish to be involved in the decision-making process.
The Experiences of Rural Family Caregivers of Cancer Patients in Newfoundland and Labrador and Their Challenges and Needs in Relocating to Urban Settings for Treatment
Background: Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has rapidly aging population and is characterized by its vast geography with high proportion of dispersed rural communities when compared to other provinces in Canada. Structural, demographic and geographic factors have created big gaps for rural residents across NL with respect to accessing various health and social services. While the barriers are well documented for patients’ access to cancer care in rural and remote areas, challenges faced by family caregivers are not fully recognized. Caregiving burden coupled with challenges associated with relocation and frequent travels create situations where caregivers are vulnerable physically, emotionally, financially and socially. This study examines the experiences of family caregivers living in rural NL through a social justice lens. It is expected to identify the gaps existing in social policy and support for rural family caregivers. It will make a novel contribution to the literature in this regard. Methods: Design: This qualitative study adopted the hermeneutic phenomenology to best describe and interpret rural-based family caregivers’ living experiences and explore the meaning, impact, and the influence of both individual experience and contextual factors shaping these experiences. Data Collection: In-depth interviews with key informants were conducted with 12 participants from various rural communities in NL. A case study was also used to explore an individual’s experience in complex social units consisting of multiple variables of in-depth understanding of the reality. Data Analysis: Thematic analysis guided by the Voice-Centred Relational (VCR) method was employed to explore the relationships and contexts of participants. Emerging Themes: Six major emerging themes were identified, namely, overwhelming caregiving burden on rural family caregivers, long existing financial hardship, separation from family and community, low level of social support and self-reliance coping strategies, and social vulnerability and isolation. Conclusion: Understanding the lived experiences of rural-based family caregivers is critical to inform the policy makers the gap of health and social service in NL. The findings of this study also have implications for family caregivers who are vulnerable in other similar contexts. This study adds innovative insights for policy making and service provision in this regard.
Organisational Culture and the Role of the Mental Health Nurse: An Ethnography of the New Graduate Nurse Experience
Background: It has been reported that the experience of the organisational workplace culture for new graduate mental health nurses plays an important role in their attraction and retention to the discipline. Additionally, other research indicates that a negative workplace culture contributes to their dissatisfaction and attrition rate. Method: An ethnographic research design was applied to explore the subcultural experiences of new graduate nurses as they encounter mental health nursing. Data was collected between April and September 2017 across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units. Data comprised of semi-structured interviews (n=24) and 31 episodes of field observation (62 hours). A total number of 26 new graduate and recent graduate nurses participated in the study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduated nurses. Results: A key finding from this study was the New Graduate difficulty in articulating the role the of mental health nurse. Participants described a dichotomy between their ideological view of the mental health nurse and the reality of clinical practice. The participants’ ideological view of the mental health nurse involved providing holistic and individualised care within a flexible framework. Participants, however, described feeling powerless to change the recovery practices within the mental health service(s) because of their low status within the hierarchy. Resulting in participants choosing to fit into the existing culture, or considering leaving the field altogether. Conclusion: An incongruence between the values and ideals of an organisational culture and the reality shock of practice are shown to contribute to role ambiguity within its members. New graduate nurses entering the culture of mental health nursing describe role ambiguity resulting in dissatisfaction with practice. The culture and philosophy inherent to a service are posited to be crucial in creating positive experiences for graduate nurses.
Exploring the Subculture of New Graduate Nurses’ Everyday Experience in Mental Health Nursing: An Ethnography
Background: It has been proposed that negative experiences in mental health nursing increase the risk of attrition for newly graduated nurses. The risk of nurse attrition is of particular concern with current nurse shortages worldwide continuing to rise. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore the qualitative experiences of new graduate nurses as they enter mental health services in their first year of clinical practice. Method: An ethnographic research design was utilized in order to explore the sub-cultural experiences of new graduate nurses. Which included 31 separate episodes of field observation (62 hours) and (n=24) semi-structured interviews. A total number of 26 new graduates and recently graduated nurses participated in this study – 14 new graduate nurses and 12 recently graduate nurses. Data collection was conducted across 6 separate Australian, NSW, mental health units from April until September 2017. Results: A major theme emerging from the research is the new graduate nurses experience of communication in their nursing role, particularly within the context of the multidisciplinary team, and the barriers to sharing information related to care. This presentation describes the thematic structure of the major theme 'communication' in the context of the everyday experience of the New Graduate mental health nurse's participation in their chosen nursing discipline. The participants described diminished communication as a negative experience affecting their envisioned notion of holistic care, which they had associated with the role of the mental health nurse. Conclusion: The relationship between nurses and members of the multidisciplinary team plays a key role in the communication of patient care, patient-centeredness and inter-professional collaboration, potentially affecting the role of the mental health nurse, satisfaction of new graduate nurses, and patient care.
Quality of Life of Women with Breast Cancer and Its Correlation with Depression and Anxiety
Women with breast cancer have to adapt to physical malformations, side effects of chemotherapy, emotional insecurity, and changes in social roles. Inability to recognize the co-morbidity of psychiatric conditions can have an aggravating effect on patient compliance in therapeutic interventions, resulting in treatment delays and an impact on overall survival. The purpose of this study was to identify the quality of life of breast cancer patients undergoing external radiation therapy and to correlate it with depression and anxiety. Patients were asked to respond to an anonymous questionnaire with general demographic and clinical questions, followed by the EORTCQLQ-C30 questionnaire for assessing the quality of life of patients with breast cancer. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as well as the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was also administered. The statistical analysis of the data was done in IBM SPSS. Results indicated that the incidence of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients is high both in HADS (37.5 % with mild to moderate depression and 62.5 % with significant to severe depression) and DASS - 21 (39.2 % mild to moderate depression and 60.8 % significant to severe) scales. The correlation of anxiety and depression with life quality was negative for HADS (r = -, 810, p = .000) as well as for DASS-21 (r = -, 682, p = .000). The psychological impact of breast cancer on patients is important. Its correlation with the quality of life may lead to better tolerance to treatment and better effectiveness of the therapeutic approach.
Correlation of Empathy with Job Satisfaction and Stress of Social Workers
There is a big discussion in the international literature on empathy, job satisfaction and job occupational among various of disciplines, including social workers. Νevertheless these parameters have not been specifically studied in the Greek territory. This paper aims to study empathy of social workers, to produce results related to whether empathy is influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, marital status, level of education and study their perceived stress levels and also the satisfaction they derive from their work. For the first time, an attempt is made to link the empathy of these professionals to their job satisfaction and their anxiety. The sample of this survey consists of 165 social workers working on providers of public and private social services. The results showed that social workers have high levels of empathy contrary to the perceived stress levels which were low to moderate. Regarding the field of the job satisfaction, the survey showed that social workers are very satisfied with their workpiece and workplace. The survey shows no significant relationship between empathy and demographic factors, but there is a significant relationship between empathy and the workpiece/job satisfaction and the feeling of success.
Investigation of the Level of Physical and Mental Health of Patients Undergoing in Chronic or Transient Hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit
Objective: The objective of this study was the investigation of the mental health of patients undergoing chronic or transient hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit, as well as its relationship to the demographic characteristic of patients. Material and Method: The study took place in Larisa during the month of December in 2016 and the sample was composed of 60 patients undergoing in chronic or transient hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit of the University General Hospital of Larisa. For the investigation of the physical and mental health of patients who participated in the study, the tool measurement > (GHQ-28) was used. The questionnaires were administered with the interview method during the hemodialysis. This survey is designed for the existence or not of a mental disorder. It examines four factors (physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression). Results: The hemodialysis patients gave the following scores: -to the physical symptoms, women showed a higher average value than men (1,16 ± 1,26 against 0,49 ± 0,93), -at the anxiety scale, it seems that women are superior to men (1,68 ± 1,20 against 0,90 ± 1,22), -at the social dysfunction scale, the elderly patients ( > 65 years old) were presented a with higher average (2,59), and -at the depression scale, patients with a higher average value were those who lived in non-urban areas. The appearance of mental disorder, in relation to patient characteristics, did not show significant statistical correlation. The sex, the age and the place of residence affect more the assessment of mental health, while education did not seem to have any significant effect on the other. Conclusions: The hemodialysis process can significantly affect the patient’s Quality of Life and it can bring adverse changes in lifestyle, affecting the physical, social and psychological state of the individual. For that reason, hemodialysis should be aimed not only at extending life but in upgrading the Quality of Life.
Nurses' and Patients’ Perception about Care: A Comparative Study
The purpose of this research is to investigate the way nurses perceive the care provided in comparison to the way patients perceive it, taking into account existing literature. As far as the sample of research is concerned, it has come from the population of nurses working in the General Hospital of Thessaloniki, St. Paul and the patients of its surgical clinic. In the present study, the sample consists of 100 nurses and 88 patients. The questionnaire used was the Caring Nurse-Patient Interactions Scale: 23-Item Version, created by Cossette et al. (2006). In the case of both patients and nurses, a high score was observed in relational care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in daily practice, as well as the satisfaction of providing nursing care. Overall, patients rated higher clinical care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in daily practice, as well as the satisfaction of the clinical care they were given. On the other hand, nurses rated higher comfort care in the case of the frequency of nursing care in everyday practice, as well as relational care in the area of the importance of nursing care in everyday practice.
HIV Disclosure Status and Factors among Women to Their Sexual Partner in Victory plus, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Background: The disclosure of women’s HIV status toward their sexual partners is an important issue that should be regarded as one of the efforts to prevent and control the spread of HIV. Research on the disclosure of seropositive HIV status as well as women-related factors in Indonesia, especially Yogyakarta is only a few. Methods: This is a correlational descriptive research along with its cross-sectional approach on 329 women with HIV/AIDS at the Victory Plus NGO from June to July 2016. This research used a purposive sampling method and a questionnaire as the data collection technique. The bivariate analysis test was undertaken by using a chi-square and multivariate test along with a logistic regression. Result: The multivariate analysis and logistic regression show five independent variables related to the disclosure of seropositive HIV status of women with HIV/AIDS toward their sexual partners, namely ethnicity (aOR = 36,859; 95% CI; (6,544-207,616)) religion (aOR =0,255; 95%CI; (0,075-0,868)), discussion with partners prior to the HIV test (aOR =0,069; 95%CI; (0,065-0,438)) , types of sexual partners (aOR = 0.191; 95% CI; (0.082-0,445)) and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status (aOR = 0.036; 95% CI; (0.008-0.160)). The highest level of reason for seropositive HIV women not to be open about their partners’ status is the fear of being rejected by their partners and the environmental stigma of HIV AIDS disease. Conclusion: The disclosure of seropositive HIV status in women with HIV/AIDS in the Victory Plus NGO of Yogyakarta was 79.4% or classified as a high category with some related factors such as ethnicity, religion, discussion with partners prior to the HIV test, types of partners and knowledge on the partners’ HIV status.
Socio-Economic Factors as Predictors of Orphanage Home Attendance in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
This study investigated the socio-economic factors as predictors of orphanage home attendance in Ibadan, Oyo State. The purpose of the study is to identify socio-economic factors predicting attendance of Orphanage homes in Ibadan, Oyo State and to identify the societies’ response to the welfare of the children in orphanage homes. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study; five research questions were raised and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study comprised all staff of orphanage homes in Ibadan, Oyo State. A purposive sampling technique was used to select forty-three (43) respondents. A self-developed structured questionnaire titled ‘Orphanage Homes Attendance Questionnaire (OHAQ)’ with reliability coefficient 0.78 was used as instrument for data collection. Descriptive statistic of frequency count, percentage, bar chart and pie chart were used to analyze the demographic data of age, sex, religion, tribe, years of experience, marital status and level of education while Inferential statistic of chi-square was used for analyzing the following research questions in the study: (i) Does a social factor predict orphanage homes attendance in Ibadan, Oyo State? (ii) Does economic factors predict orphanage homes attendance in Ibadan, Oyo State? (iii) What are the challenges facing orphanage homes in Ibadan, Oyo State? (iv) What are the societal (family, NGO, traditional, individuals, traditional rulers, government, etc.) support to orphanage homes in Ibadan, Oyo State? (v) What are the support facilities provided by orphanage homes in Ibadan, Oyo State? The result indicated that social-economic factors of death of parents, disability, abandonment, neglect, lack of caregiver, disaster, unwanted pregnancy, poverty, access to education, meeting children’s basic needs, lack of support and high cost of education predicts orphanage homes attendance in Ibadan, Oyo State. Based on the findings of the study, it is therefore recommended that Government should provide adequate social amenities that will improve livelihood of citizens and as well create awareness on going for other alternative options by the extended family member in case of death of parents.
talk2all: A Revolutionary Tool for International Medical Tourism
Patients have often chosen to travel for care — making pilgrimages to academic meccas and state-of-the-art hospitals for sophisticated surgery. This culture is still persistent in the landscape of US healthcare, with hundred thousand of visitors coming to the shores of United States to seek the high quality of medical care. One of the major challenges in this form of medical tourism has been the language barrier. Thus, an Iraqi patient, with immediate needs of communicating the healthcare needs to the treating team in the hospital, may face huge barrier in effective patient-doctor communication, delaying care and even at times reducing the quality. To circumvent these challenges, we are proposing the use of a state-of-the-art tool, Talk2All, which can translate nearly one hundred international languages (and even sign language) in real time. The tool is an easy to download app and highly user friendly. It builds on machine learning principles to decode different languages in real time. We suggest that the use of Talk2All will tremendously enhance communication in the hospital setting, effectively breaking the language barrier. We propose that vigorous incorporation of Talk2All shall overcome practical challenges in international medical and surgical tourism.
An Observational Study Assessing the Baseline Communication Behaviors among Healthcare Professionals in an Inpatient Setting in Singapore
Background: Synchronous communication, such as telephone calls, remains the standard communication method between nurses and other healthcare professionals in Singapore public hospitals despite advances in asynchronous technological platforms, such as instant messaging. Although miscommunication is one of the most common causes of lapses in patient care, there is a scarcity of research characterizing baseline inter-professional healthcare communications in a hospital setting due to logistic difficulties. Objective: This study aims to characterize the frequency and patterns of communication behaviours among healthcare professionals. Methods: The one-week observational study was conducted on Monday through Sunday at the nursing station of a cardiovascular medicine and cardiothoracic surgery inpatient ward at the National Heart Centre Singapore. Subjects were shadowed by two physicians for sixteen hours or consecutive morning and afternoon nursing shifts. Communications were logged and characterized by type, duration, caller, and recipient. Results: A total of 1,023 communication events involving the attempted use of the common telephones at the nursing station were logged over a period of one week, corresponding to a frequency of one event every 5.45 minutes (SD 6.98, range 0-56 minutes). Nurses initiated the highest proportion of outbound calls (38.7%) via the nursing station common phone. A total of 179 face-to-face communications (17.5%), 362 inbound calls (35.39%), 481 outbound calls (47.02%), and 1 emergency alert (0.10%) were captured. Average response time for task-oriented communications was 159 minutes (SD 387.6, range 86-231). Approximately 1 in 3 communications captured aimed to clarify patient-related information. The total duration of time spent on synchronous communication events over one week, calculated from total inbound and outbound calls, was estimated to be a total of 7 hours. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that there is a significant amount of time spent on inter-professional healthcare communications via synchronous channels. Integration of patient-related information and use of asynchronous communication channels may help to reduce the redundancy of communications and clarifications. Future studies should explore the use of asynchronous mobile platforms to address the inefficiencies observed in healthcare communications.
A Cross-Sectional Study Assessing Communication Practices among Doctors at a University Hospital in Pakistan
Communication among health care givers is the essence of quality patient care and any compromise results in errors and inefficiency leading to cumbersome outcomes. The use of smartphone among health professionals has increased tremendously. Almost every health professional carries it and majority of them uses a third party communication software called whatsApp for work related communications. It gives instant access to the person responsible for any particular query and therefore helps in efficient and timely decision making. It is also an easy way of sharing medical documents, multimedia and provides platform for consensual decision making through group discussions. However clinical communication through whatsApp has some demerits too including reduction in verbal communication, worsening professional relations, unprofessional behavior, risk of confidentiality breach and threats from cyber-attacks. On the other hand the traditional pager device being used in many health care systems is a unidirectional communication that lacks the ability to convey any information other than the number to which the receiver has to respond. Our study focused on these two widely used modalities of communication among doctors of the largest tertiary care center of Pakistan i.e. The Aga Khan University Hospital. Our aim was to note which modality is considered better and has fewer threats to medical data. Approval from ethical review committee of the institute was taken prior to conduction of this study. We submitted an online survey form to all the interns and residents working at our institute and collected their response in a month’s time. 162 submissions were recorded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Only 20% of them were comfortable with using pagers exclusively, 52% with whatsApp and 28% with both. 65% think that whatsApp is time-saving and quicker than pager. 54% of them considered whatsApp to be causing nuisance from work related notifications in their off-work hours. 60% think that they are more likely to miss information through pager system because of the unidirectional nature. Almost all (96%) of residents and interns found whatsApp to be useful in terms of saving information for future reference. For urgent issues, majority (70%) preferred pager over whatsApp and also pager was considered more valid in terms of hospital policies and legal issues. Among major advantages of whatsApp as listed by them were; easy mass communication, sharing of clinical pictures, universal access and no need of carrying additional device. However the major drawback of using whatsApp for clinical communication that everyone shared was threat to patients’ confidentiality as clinicians usually share pictures of wounds, clinical documents etc. Lastly we asked them if they think there is a need of a separate application for instant communication dedicated to clinical communication only and 90% responded positively. Therefore, we concluded that both modalities have their merits and demerits but the greatest drawback with whatsApp is the risk of breach in patients’ confidentiality and off-work disturbance. Hence, we recommend a more secure, institute-run application for all intra hospital communications where they can share documents, pictures etc. easily under a controlled environment.
A Cross-Sectional Study on Clinical Self-Efficacy of Final Year School of Nursing Students among Universities of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia
Background: Clinical competence is one of the ultimate goals of nursing education. Clinical skills are more than successfully performing tasks; it incorporates client assessment, identification of deficits and the ability to critically think to provide solutions. Assessment of clinical competence, particularly identifying gaps that need improvement and determining the educational needs of nursing students have great importance in nursing education. Thus this study aims determining clinical self-efficacy of final year school of nursing students in three universities of Tigray Region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 final year school of nursing students from department of nursing, psychiatric nursing, and midwifery on three universities of Tigray region. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was administered to generate data collected on June, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result is described using tables and charts as required. Logistic regression was employed to test associations. Result: The mean age of students was 22.94 + 1.44. Generally, 21% of students have been graduated in the department in which they are not interested. The study demonstrated 28.6% had poor and 71.4% had good perceived clinical self-efficacy. Beside this, 43.8% of psychiatric nursing and 32.6% of comprehensive nursing students have poor clinical self-efficacy. Among the four domains, 39.3% and 37.9% have poor clinical self- efficacy with regard to ‘Professional development’ and ‘Management of care’. Place of the institution [AOR=3.480 (1.333 - 9.088), p=0.011], interest during department selection [AOR=2.202 (1.045 - 4.642), p=.038], and theory-practice gap [AOR=0.224 (0.110 - 0.457), p=0.000] were significantly associated with perceived clinical self-efficacy. Conclusion: The magnitude of students with poor clinically self efficacy was high. Place of institution, theory-practice gap, students interest to the discipline were the significant predictors of clinical self-efficacy. Students from youngest universities have good clinical self-efficacy. During department selection, student’s interest should be respected. The universities and other stakeholders should improve the capacity of surrounding affiliate teaching hospitals to set and improve care standards in order to narrow the theory-practice gap. School faculties should provide trainings to hospital staffs and monitor standards of clinical procedures.
Explaining the Role of Iran Health System in Polypharmacy among the Elderly
Taking unnecessary or excessive medication or using drugs with no indication (polypharmacy) by people of all ages, especially the elderly, is associated with increased adverse drug reactions (ADR), medical errors, hospitalization and escalating the costs. It may be facilitated or impeded by the healthcare system. In this study, we are going to describe the role of the health system in the practice of polypharmacy in Iranian elderly. In this Inductive qualitative content analysis using Graneheim and Lundman methods, purposeful sample selection until saturation has been made. Participants have been selected from doctors, pharmacists, policy-makers and the elderly. A total of 25 persons (9 men and 16 women) have participated in this study. Data analysis after incorporating codes with similar characteristics revealed 14 subcategories and six main categories of the referral system, physicians’ accessibility, health data management, drug market, laws enforcement, and social protection. Some of the conditions of the healthcare system have given rise to polypharmacy in the elderly. In the absence of a comprehensive specialty and subspecialty referral system, patients may go to any physician office so may well be confused about numerous doctors' prescriptions. Electronic records not being prepared for the patients, failure to comply with laws, lack of robust enforcement for the existing laws and close surveillance are among the contributing factors. Inadequate insurance and supportive services are also evident. Age-specific care providing has not yet been institutionalized, while, inadequate specialist workforce playing a major role. So, one may not ignore the health system as contributing factor in designing effective interventions to fix the problem.
Examining the Predictors of Non-Urgent Emergency Department Visits: A Population Based Study
Background: Misuse of Emergency Department (ED) for non-urgent healthcare results in unnecessary crowdedness that can result in long ED waits and delays in treatment, diversion of ambulances to other hospitals, poor health outcomes for patients, and increased risk of death Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to explore the independent predictors of non-urgent ED visits in Erie St. Clair LHIN. Secondary purposes of the study include comparison of the rates of non-urgent ED visits between urban and rural hospitals Design: A secondary analysis of archived population-based data on 597,373 ED visits in southwestern Ontario Results The results suggest that older (OR = .992; 95% CI .992 – .993) and female patients (OR = .940; 95% CI .929 - .950) were less likely to visit ED for non-urgent causes. Non-urgent ED visits during the winter, spring, and fall were 13%, 5.8%, and 7.5%, respectively, lesser than they were during the summer time. The data further suggest that non-urgent visits were 19.6% and 21.3% less likely to occur in evening and overnight shifts compared to the day shift. Non-urgent visits were 2.76 times more likely to present to small community hospitals than large community hospitals. Health care providers were 1.92 times more likely to refer patients with non-urgent health problem to the ED than the decision taken by patients, family member or caretakers. Conclusion: In conclusion, our study highlights a number of important factors that are associated with inappropriate use of ED visits for non-urgent health problems. Knowledge of these factors could be used to address the issue of unnecessary ED crowdedness.
Using Internal Marketing to Investigate Nursing Staff Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
In recent years, nursing staff’s lower job satisfaction has led to higher turnover rates, and high turnover rates not only cause medical institution costs to increase but also the quality of medical care to decrease. From the perspective of internal marketing, institution staffs are internal customers, and institutions should focus and meet the needs of staff, so that staff will strive to meet the needs of external customers and provide them with the required care. However, few previous studies have investigated the impact of internal staff satisfaction on external customers. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct job satisfaction surveys on internal staff to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and quality of medical care through statistical analysis of the study results. The related study results may serve as a reference for healthcare managers. This study was conducted using a questionnaire and the subjects were nursing staff from four hospitals. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 577 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 96.1%. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The impact of internal marketing and job satisfaction on turnover intention of nursing staff was analyzed using descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study results showed that there was a significant difference between nursing staff’s job title and ‘professional participation’ and ‘shifts’. There was a significant difference between salary and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’, as well as between marriage and ‘remuneration’ and ‘turnover intention’. A significant difference was found between professional advancement and ‘professional growth’ and ‘type of leave’, as well as between division of service and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between turnover intention and ‘internal marketing’, ‘interaction’, ‘professional participation’, ‘grasp of environment’, ‘remuneration’ and ‘shifts’, meaning that the higher the satisfaction, the lower the turnover intention. It is recommended that hospitals establish a comprehensive internal marketing mechanism to enhance staff satisfaction and in turn, reduce intention to resign, and the key to increasing job satisfaction is by establishing effective methods of internal communication.