International Science Index

International Journal of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

608
78647
The Analysis of Noise Harmfulness in Public Utility Facilities
Abstract:
The main purpose of the study is to perform the measurement and analysis of noise harmfulness in public utility facilities. The World Health Organization reports that the number of people suffering from hearing impairment is constantly increasing. The most alarming is the number of young people occurring in the statistics. The majority of scientific research in the field of hearing protection and noise prevention concern industrial and road traffic noise as the source of health problems. As the result, corresponding standards and regulations defining noise level limits are enforced. However, there is another field uncovered by profound research – leisure time. Public utility facilities such as clubs, shopping malls, sport facilities or concert halls – they all generate high-level noise, being out of proper juridical control. Among European Union Member States, the highest legislative act concerning noise prevention is the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC. However, it omits the problem discussed above and even for traffic, railway and aircraft noise it does not set limits or target values, leaving these issues to the discretion of the Member State authorities. Without explicit and uniform regulations, noise level control at places designed for relaxation and entertainment is often in the responsibility of people having little knowledge of hearing protection, unaware of the risk the noise pollution poses. Exposure to high sound levels in clubs, cinemas, at concerts and sports events may result in a progressive hearing loss, especially among young people, being the main target group of such facilities and events. The first step to change this situation and to raise the general awareness is to perform reliable measurements the results of which will emphasize the significance of the problem. This project presents the results of more than hundred measurements, performed in most types of public utility facilities in Poland. As the most suitable measuring instrument for such a research, personal noise dosimeters were used to collect the data. Each measurement is presented in the form of numerical results including equivalent and peak sound pressure levels and a detailed description considering the type of the sound source, size and furnishing of the room and the subjective sound level evaluation. In the absence of a straight reference point for the interpretation of the data, the limits specified in EU Directive 2003/10/EC were used for comparison. They set the maximum sound level values for workers in relation to their working time length. The analysis of the examined problem leads to the conclusion that during leisure time, people are exposed to noise levels significantly exceeding safe values. As the hearing problems are gradually progressing, most people underplay the problem, ignoring the first symptoms. Therefore, an effort has to be made to specify the noise regulations for public utility facilities. Without any action, in the foreseeable future the majority of Europeans will be dealing with serious hearing damage, which will have a negative impact on the whole societies.
607
78680
Experimental Verification of Similarity Criteria for Sound Absorption of Perforated Panels
Abstract:
Scaled modeling is very common in the areas of science such as aerodynamics or fluid mechanics, since defining characteristic numbers enables to determine relations between objects under test and their models. In acoustics, scaled modeling is aimed mainly at investigation of room acoustics, sound insulation and sound absorption phenomena. Despite such a range of application, there is no method developed that would enable scaling acoustical perforated panels freely, maintaining their sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range. However, conducted theoretical and numerical analyses have proven that it is not physically possible to obtain given sound absorption coefficient in a desired frequency range by directly scaling only all of the physical dimensions of a perforated panel, according to a defined characteristic number. This paper is a continuation of the research mentioned above and presents practical evaluation of theoretical and numerical analyses. The measurements of sound absorption coefficient of perforated panels were performed in order to verify previous analyses and as a result find the relations between full-scale perforated panels and their models which will enable to scale them properly. The measurements were conducted in a one-to-eight model of a reverberation chamber of Technical Acoustics Laboratory, AGH. Obtained results verify theses proposed after theoretical and numerical analyses. Finding the relations between full-scale and modeled perforated panels will allow to produce measurement samples equivalent to the original ones. As a consequence, it will make the process of designing acoustical perforated panels easier and will also lower the costs of prototypes production. Having this knowledge, it will be possible to emulate in a constructed model panels used, or to be used, in a full-scale room more precisely and as a result imitate or predict the acoustics of a modeled space more accurately.
606
78691
Engineering Method to Measure the Impact Sound Improvement with Floor Coverings
Abstract:
Methodology used to measure the reduction of transmitted impact sound by floor coverings situated on a massive floor is described in ISO 10140-3: 2010. To carry out such tests, the standardised reverberation room separated by a standard floor from the second measuring room are required. The need to have a special laboratory results in high cost and low accessibility of this measurement. The authors propose their own engineering method to measure the impact sound improvement with floor coverings. This method does not require standard rooms and floor. This paper describes the measurement procedure of proposed engineering method. Further, verification tests were performed. Validation of the proposed method was based on the analytical model, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model and empirical measurements. The received results were related to corresponding ones obtained from ISO 10140-3:2010 measurements. The study confirmed the usefulness of the engineering method.
605
78693
Validation of the Formula for Air Attenuation Coefficient for Acoustic Scale Models
Abstract:
Methodology of measurement of sound absorption coefficient in scaled models is based on the ISO 354 standard. The measurement is realised indirectly - the coefficient is calculated from the reverberation time of an empty chamber as well as a chamber with an inserted sample. It is crucial to maintain the atmospheric conditions stable during both measurements. Possible differences may be amended basing on the formulas for atmospheric attenuation coefficient α given in ISO 9613-1. Model studies require scaling particular factors in compliance with specified characteristic numbers. For absorption coefficient measurement, these are for example: frequency range or the value of attenuation coefficient m. Thanks to the possibilities of modern electroacoustic transducers, it is no longer a problem to scale the frequencies which have to be proportionally higher. However, it may be problematic to reduce values of the attenuation coefficient. It is practically obtained by drying the air down to a defined relative humidity. Despite the change of frequency range and relative humidity of the air, ISO 9613-1 standard still allows the calculation of the amendment for little differences of the atmospheric conditions in the chamber during measurements. The paper discusses a number of theoretical analyses and experimental measurements performed in order to obtain consistency between the values of attenuation coefficient calculated from the formulas given in the standard and by measurement. The authors performed measurements of reverberation time in a chamber made in a 1/8 scale in a corresponding frequency range, i.e. 800 Hz - 40 kHz and in different values of the relative air humidity (40% 5%). Based on the measurements, empirical values of attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared with theoretical ones. In general, the values correspond with each other, but for high frequencies and low values of relative air humidity the differences are significant. Those discrepancies may directly influence the values of measured sound absorption coefficient and cause errors. Therefore, the authors made an effort to determine an amendment minimizing described inaccuracy.
604
77484
High Accuracy Analytic Approximations for Modified Bessel Functions I₀(x)
Abstract:
A method to obtain analytic approximations for special function of interest in engineering and physics is described here. Each approximate function will be valid for every positive value of the variable and accuracy will be high and increasing with the number of parameters to determine. The general technique will be shown through an application to the modified Bessel function of order zero, I₀(x). The form and the calculation of the parameters are performed with the simultaneous use of the power series and asymptotic expansion. As in Padé method rational functions are used, but now they are combined with other elementary functions as; fractional powers, hyperbolic, trigonometric and exponential functions, and others. The elementary function is determined, considering that the approximate function should be a bridge between the power series and the asymptotic expansion. In the case of the I₀(x) function two analytic approximations have been already determined. The simplest one is (1+x²/4)⁻¹/⁴(1+0.24273x²) cosh(x)/(1+0.43023x²). The parameters of I₀(x) were determined using the leading term of the asymptotic expansion and two coefficients of the power series, and the maximum relative error is 0.05. In a second case, two terms of the asymptotic expansion were used and 4 of the power series and the maximum relative error is 0.001 at x≈9.5. Approximations with much higher accuracy will be also shown. In conclusion a new technique is described to obtain analytic approximations to some functions of interest in sciences, such that they have a high accuracy, they are valid for every positive value of the variable, they can be integrated and differentiated as the usual, functions, and furthermore they can be calculated easily even with a regular pocket calculator.
603
76346
Radiation Protection Assessment of the Emission of a d-t Neutron Generator: Simulations with MCNP Code and Experimental Measurements in Different Operating Conditions
Abstract:
Practical guidelines are provided in this work for the safe use of a portable d-t Thermo Scientific MP-320 neutron generator producing pulsed 14.1 MeV neutron beams. The neutron generator’s emission was tested experimentally and reproduced by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Simulations were particularly accurate, even generator’s internal components were reproduced on the basis of ad-hoc collected X-ray radiographic images. Measurement campaigns were conducted under different standard experimental conditions using an LB 6411 neutron detector properly calibrated at three different energies, and comparing simulated and experimental data. In order to estimate the dose to the operator vs. the operating conditions and the energy spectrum, the most appropriate value of the conversion factor between neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent has been identified, taking into account both direct and scattered components. The results of the simulations show that, in real situations, when there is no information about the neutron spectrum at the point where the dose has to be evaluated, it is possible - and in any case conservative - to convert the measured value of the count rate by means of the conversion factor corresponding to 14 MeV energy. This outcome has a general value when using this type of generator, enabling a more accurate design of experimental activities in different setups. The increasingly widespread use of this type of device for industrial and medical applications makes the results of this work of interest in different situations, especially as a support for the definition of appropriate radiation protection procedures and, in general, for risk analysis.
602
77846
Radiation Protection and Licensing for an Experimental Fusion Facility: The Italian and European Approaches
Abstract:
An experimental nuclear fusion device could be seen as a step toward the development of the future nuclear fusion power plant. If compared with other possible solutions to the energy problem, nuclear fusion has advantages that ensure sustainability and security. In particular considering the radioactivity and the radioactive waste produced, in a nuclear fusion plant the component materials could be selected in order to limit the decay period, making it possible the recycling in a new reactor after about 100 years from the beginning of the decommissioning. To achieve this and other pertinent goals many experimental machines have been developed and operated worldwide in the last decades, underlining that radiation protection and workers exposure are critical aspects of these facilities due to the high flux, high energy neutrons produced in the fusion reactions. Direct radiation, material activation, tritium diffusion and other related issues pose a real challenge to the demonstration that these devices are safer than the nuclear fission facilities. In Italy, a limited number of fusion facilities have been constructed and operated since 30 years ago, mainly at the ENEA Frascati Center, and the radiation protection approach, addressed by the national licensing requirements, shows that it is not always easy to respect the constraints for the workers' exposure to ionizing radiation. In the current analysis, the main radiation protection issues encountered in the Italian Fusion facilities are considered and discussed, and the technical and legal requirements are described. The licensing process for these kinds of devices is outlined and compared with that of other European countries. The following aspects are considered throughout the current study: i) description of the installation, plant and systems, ii) suitability of the area, buildings, and structures, iii) radioprotection structures and organization, iv) exposure of personnel, v) accident analysis and relevant radiological consequences, vi) radioactive wastes assessment and management. In conclusion, the analysis points out the needing of a special attention to the radiological exposure of the workers in order to demonstrate at least the same level of safety as that reached at the nuclear fission facilities.
601
77763
Precise Analytic Approximation for the Parabolic Cylinder Function I₁/₄(x) and I-₁/₄(x)
Abstract:
New efficient analytic approximations have been found for the modified Bessel functions I₁/₄(x) and I-₁/₄(x), improving prior techniques, such as the quasirational multipolar approximation, MPQA. As in Padé method, rational functions are used, but now the asymptotic expansion is also used simultaneously with the power series, and because of this, rational functions have to be combined with elementary functions, so that the approximation is a bridge between both expansions. The approximation now found is a rational function combined with the hyperbolic function and fractional powers. Only three parameters are needed to obtain a maximum relative error of less than one percent. Higher accuracy has been obtained using a higher number of parameters, and they will also be presented here. All the approximations are analytic, and they can be integrated and differentiated, as well. They are also valid for all positive values of the variable, and the accuracy is higher for small and large values of the variable. For instance, in the simplest approximant, the maximum relative error for I₁/₄(x) is 0.006 for x ~ 0.61. Outside this region, the around 0.1 the accuracy of the function is about 0.002. In this case, also the approximation is so simple that can be easily calculated with a usual pocket calculator.
600
77764
High Accuracy Analytic Approximation for Special Functions Applied to Bessel Functions Jₒ(x) and Its Zeros
Abstract:
The Bessel function Jₒ(x) is very important in electrodynamics and physics, as well as its zeros. In this work, a method to obtain high accuracy approximation is presented through an application to that function. In most of the applications of this function, the values of the zeros are very important. In this work, analytic approximations for this function have been obtained valid for all positive values of the variable x, which has high accuracy for the function as well as for the zeros. The approximation is determined by the simultaneous use of the power series and asymptotic expansion. The structure of the approximation is a combination of two rational functions with elementary functions as trigonometric and fractional powers. In Padé method, a rational function is used; but here the method is much different, because first two rational functions are used, and they are also combined with rational functions are used and they are also combined with other elementary functions, because now asymptotic expansions are used as well as power series, and the approximate function will be a bridge between both expansions. In the simplest approximation using 4 parameters, the maximum absolute error is less than 0.006 at x ~ 4.9. In this case, also the maximum relative error is less than 0.003 at x ~ 2.1, the second zero, but that value decreases rapidly for the other zeros. The same kind of behavior happens for the relative error of the maximum and minimum of the functions. Approximations with higher accuracy and more parameters will be also shown. All the approximations are valid for any positive value of x, and they can be calculated easily.
599
76856
Electronic/Optoelectronic Property Tuning in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via High Pressure
Abstract:
The tuneable interlayer interactions in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichlcogenides (TMDs) offer an exciting platform for exploring new physics and applications by material variety, thickness, stacking sequence, electromagnetic filed, and stress/strain. Compared with the five methods mentioned above, high pressure is a clean and powerful tool to induce dramatic changes in lattice parameters and physical properties for 2D TMD materials. For instance, high pressure can strengthen the van der Waals interactions along c-axis and shorten the covalent bonds in atomic plane, leading to the typical first-order structural transition (2Hc to 2Ha for MoS2), or metallization. In particular, in the case of WTe₂, its unique symmetry endows the significant anisotropy and the corresponding unexpected properties including the giant magnetoresistance, pressure-induced superconductivity and Weyl semimetal states. Upon increasing pressure, the Raman peaks for WTe₂ at ~120 cm⁻¹, are gradually red-shifted and totally suppressed above 10 GPa, attributed to the possible structural instability of orthorhombic Td phase under high pressure and phase transition to a new monoclinic T' phase with inversion symmetry. Distinct electronic structures near Fermi level between the Td and T' phases may pave a feasible way to achieve the Weyl state tuning in one material without doping.
598
77453
Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant UPEC Using FTIR-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis
Abstract:
Antimicrobial drugs have played an indispensable role in controlling illness and death associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global healthcare problem. Many antibiotics had lost their effectiveness since the beginning of the antibiotic era because many bacteria have adapted defenses against these antibiotics. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing require the isolation of the pathogen from a clinical specimen by culturing on the appropriate media (this culturing stage lasts 24 h-first culturing). Then, chosen colonies are grown on media containing antibiotic(s), using micro-diffusion discs (second culturing time is also 24 h) in order to determine its bacterial susceptibility. Other methods, genotyping methods, E-test and automated methods were also developed for testing antimicrobial susceptibility. Most of these methods are expensive and time-consuming. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, effective and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria; nonetheless, its true potential in routine clinical diagnosis has not yet been established. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The UTI E.coli bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 700 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 90% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.
597
78757
Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications
Abstract:
Planar plasmonic terahertz waveguides have been widely examined in the last decade owing to its significance in slow light phenomenon, band pass and band stop filter, achromatic quarter wave plate etc. In this paper, we investigate sensing capabilities of the planar plasmonic terahertz guide wave devices. In our proposed configuration, the waveguide is comprised of one-dimensional array of periodically arranged sub-wavelength corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure plasmonic response. We first examine the dispersion relations of the fundamental terahertz mode supported by the plasmonic waveguides. The terahertz waveguide transmission is observed for the thin film polyimide substance that fills the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity, and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance. We employ a semi-analytical transmission line resistor, inductor and capacitor (RLC) circuit model to elucidate our numerical observations. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V-shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in the development of new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.
596
79176
The Mechanism Study of Degradative Solvent Extraction of Biomass by Liquid-Membrane Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Degradative solvent extraction (DSE) is the method developed for biomass upgrading by dewatering and fractionation of biomass under the mild condition. However, the conversion mechanism of the DSE method has not been fully understood so far. The main reactions from the studies of the DSE method of biomass are dehydration, decarboxylation, and aromatization. The feasibility and advantages of liquid-membrane Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technique have been proved to identify molecular components and quantitatively analyze of the hydroxyl groups of the main extraction product (solvent-soluble) of the DSE method without separation from the solvent. To study this process mechanism in-depth, the liquid-membrane FTIR technique is applied in this study. The solvent-treatment temperature is varied from 250 to 350oC to examine the changed occurring during the conversion of biomass of DSE method. The rice straw is treated in 1-methylnaphthalene at a different solvent-treatment temperature from 250 to 350oC with the residence time for 60 min. The FTIR spectrum of solvent-soluble associated with oxygen functional groups, the oxygen-hydrogen stretching (3600 - 3100 cm-1) and the carbonyl stretching (1800 - 1600 cm-1) regions, are then investigated. The obtained IR spectrum is deconvoluted to a series of bands in each region and the peak areas for each band are obtained. The content of oxygen in hydroxyl groups and in carboxylic acid are calculated from the FTIR analysis with the aid of the absorption coefficient, which has been derived using the known concentration reagents. It has been found that the oxygen obtained in the oxygen-hydrogen stretching region and in carboxylic acid in the carbonyl stretching region decreased slightly with increasing solvent-treatment temperature from 250 to 350oC. The relative quantity of hydrogen-bonded OH of soluble in the oxygen-hydrogen stretching region decreases from 300 to 350oC, which shows that dehydration reaction takes place between 300oC and 350oC. The results of deconvolution applied to the carbonyl stretching region, FTIR spectra reveal the presence of esters, carboxylic acid and ketonic groups in the solvent-soluble of biomass. As the relative change of carbonyl functional groups measured from the band areas in the solvent-soluble of biomass, the results decrease as increasing the solvent-treatment temperature. These functional groups may be removed by the decarboxylation by the carboxylic acid in the solvent-soluble of biomass changing to the form of carbon dioxide.
595
77283
Groundwater Recharge Pattern in East and West Coast of India: Evidence of Dissimilar Moisture Sources
Abstract:
The stable isotope (δ¹⁸ O and δ²H) composition of groundwater of the coastal areas of Periyar and Mahanadi basins falling along East and West coast of India during North-East (NE) monsoon season have been studied. The east and west coast regions are surrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively, which are considered to be the primary sources for precipitation over India. The major difference between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is that a number of large rivers feed the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Arabian Sea is fed by very few small rivers, resulting in enriched stable isotopic composition of the Arabian Sea than the Bay of Bengal. Previous studies have reported depleted ratios of stable isotopes during Northeast monsoon along East and West coasts due to the influence of the Bay of Bengal moisture source. The isotopic composition of groundwater of the Mahanadi delta in the east coast region varies from -6.87 ‰ to -3.40 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and -45.42 ‰ to -22.43‰ for δ²H. However, the groundwater of the Periyar basin in the west coast has enriched stable isotope value varying from -4.3‰ to -2.5 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and for δ²H from -23.7 to -6.4 ‰ which is a characteristic of South-West monsoon season. This suggests the groundwater system of the Mahanadi delta and the Periyar basins are influenced by dissimilar moisture sources. The δ¹⁸ O and δ² H relationship (δ²H= 6.513 δ¹⁸ O - 1.39) and d-excess value (< 10) in the east coast region indicates the influence of NE monsoon implying the quick groundwater recharge after precipitation with significant amount of evaporation. In contrast, the δ¹⁸ O and δ²H regression line (δ²H= 8.408 δ¹⁸ O + 11.71) with high d-excess value (>10) in the west coast region implies delayed recharge due to SW monsoon. The observed isotopic enrichment in west coast suggests that NE winter monsoon rainfall does not replenish groundwater quick enough to produce isotopic depletion during the season.
594
74337
Thermal Behaviors of the Strong Form Factors of Charmonium and Charmed Beauty Mesons from Three Point Sum Rules
Abstract:
In order to understand the nature of strong interactions and QCD vacuum, investigation of the meson coupling constants have an important role. The knowledge on the temperature dependence of the form factors is very important for the interpretation of heavy-ion collision experiments. Also, more accurate determination of these coupling constants plays a crucial role in understanding of the hadronic decays. With the increasing of CM energies of the experiments, researches on meson interactions have become one of the more interesting problems of hadronic physics. In this study, we analyze the temperature dependence of the strong form factor of the BcBcJ/ψ vertex using the three point QCD sum rules method. Here, we assume that with replacing the vacuum condensates and also the continuum threshold by their thermal version, the sum rules for the observables remain valid. In calculations, we take into account the additional operators, which appear in the Wilson expansion at finite temperature. We also investigated the momentum dependence of the form factor at T = 0, fit it into an analytic function, and extrapolate into the deep time-like region in order to obtain a strong coupling constant of the vertex. Our results are consistent with the results existing in the literature.
593
77296
Experimental Options for the Role of Dynamic Torsion in General Relativity
Abstract:
The experimental search for spin coupling in General Relativity via torsion has been inconclusive. In this work, further experimental avenues to test dynamic torsion are proposed and evaluated. In the extended theory, by relaxing the torsion free condition on the metric connection, general relativity is reformulated to relate the spin density of particles to a new quantity, the torsion tensor. In torsion theories, the spin tensor and torsion tensor are related in much the same way as the stress-energy tensor is related to the metric connection. Similarly, as the metric is the field associated with the metric connection, fields can be associated with the torsion tensor resulting in a field that is either propagating or static. Experimental searches for static torsion have thus far been inconclusive, and currently, there have been no experimental tests for propagating torsion. Experimental tests of propagating theories of torsion are proposed utilizing various spin densities of matter, such as interfaces in superconducting materials and plasmas. The experimental feasibility and observable bounds are estimated, and the most viable candidates are selected to pursue in detail in a future work.
592
76059
Tunable Thermometric Application of a Metal–Insulator–Superconductor Junction in Presence of Rashba Spin–Orbit Coupling
Abstract:
The temperature dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of a device consisting of a metal-insulator-superconductor (MIS) junction in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) at the interfaces has been investigated via a modified version of the Blonder - Tinkham - Klapwijk (BTK) theory. Since the I-V characteristics are strongly sensitive to temperature, they may be suitable for low temperature thermometric applications. The operational temperature range of this MIS device is set by the transition temperature (Tc) of the superconductor as beyond which the superconductivity is destroyed. It is found that the conductance characteristic is highly sensitive to the presence of RSOC and owing to the tunability of the RSOC parameter via an external gate voltage, the MIS junction can be applied as a sensitive thermometric device where the sensitivity can be altered by manipulating the strength of RSOC. Very interestingly, it has been noticed that the barrier potential in the insulating region has intriguing interplay with the RSOC strength in the thermometric applications, where for certain range of the Rashba interaction, the thermometric sensitivity increases where for some other range the reverse happens. Thus a design of a MIS junction as a temperature sensor would require an information of the barrier potential and the RSOC strength.
591
76194
Magnetic versus Non-Magnetic Adatoms in Graphene Nanoribbons: Tuning of Spintronic Applications and the Quantum Spin Hall Phase
Abstract:
Conductance in graphene nanoribbons (GNR) in presence of magnetic (for example, Iron) and non-magnetic (for example, Gold) adatoms are explored theoretically within a Kane-Mele model for their possible spintronic applications and topologically non-trivial properties. In our work, we have considered the magnetic adatoms to induce a Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) and an exchange bias field, while the non-magnetic ones induce an RSOC and an intrinsic spin-orbit (SO) coupling. Even though RSOC is present in both, they, however, represent very different physical situations, where the magnetic adatoms do not preserve the time reversal symmetry, while the non-magnetic case does. This has important implications on the topological properties. For example, the non-magnetic adatoms, for moderately strong values of SO, the GNR denotes a quantum spin Hall insulator as evident from a 2e²/h plateau in the longitudinal conductance and presence of distinct conducting edge states with an insulating bulk. Since the edge states are protected by time reversal symmetry, the magnetic adatoms in GNR yield trivial insulators and do not possess any non-trivial topological property. However, they have greater utility than the non-magnetic adatoms from the point of view of spintronic applications. Owing to the broken spatial symmetry induced by the presence of adatoms of either type, all the x, y and z components of the spin-polarized conductance become non-zero (only the y-component survives in pristine Graphene owing to a mirror symmetry present there) and hence become suitable for spintronic applications. However, the values of the spin polarized conductances are at least two orders of magnitude larger in the case of magnetic adatoms than their non-magnetic counterpart, thereby ensuring more efficient spintronic applications. Further the applications are tunable by altering the adatom densities.
590
74746
Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat
Authors:
Abstract:
Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.
589
71437
Proposed Design of an Optimized Transient Cavity Picosecond Ultraviolet Laser
Abstract:
There is a great deal of interest in developing all-solid-state tunable ultrashort pulsed lasers emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) region for applications such as micromachining, investigation of charge carrier relaxation in conductors, and probing of ultrafast chemical processes. However, direct short-pulse generation is not as straight forward in solid-state gain media as it is for near-IR tunable solid-state lasers such as Ti:sapphire due to the difficulty of obtaining continuous wave laser operation, which is required for Kerr lens mode-locking schemes utilizing spatial or temporal Kerr type nonlinearity. In this work, the transient cavity method, which was reported to generate ultrashort laser pulses in dye lasers, is extended to a solid-state gain medium. Ce:LiCAF was chosen among the rare-earth-doped fluoride laser crystals emitting in the UV region because of its broad tunability (from 280 to 325 nm) and enough bandwidth to generate 3-fs pulses, sufficiently large effective gain cross section (6.0 x10⁻¹⁸ cm²) favorable for oscillators, and a high saturation fluence (115 mJ/cm²). Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the spectro-temporal evolution of the broadband UV laser emission from Ce:LiCAF, represented as a system of two homogeneous broadened singlet states, by solving the rate equations extended to multiple wavelengths. The goal is to find the appropriate cavity length and Q-factor to achieve the optimal photon cavity decay time and pumping energy for resonator transients that will lead to ps UV laser emission from a Ce:LiCAF crystal pumped by the fourth harmonics (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Results show that a single ps pulse can be generated from a 1-mm, 1 mol% Ce³⁺-doped LiCAF crystal using an output coupler with 10% reflectivity (low-Q) and an oscillator cavity that is 2-mm long (short cavity). This technique can be extended to other fluoride-based solid-state laser gain media.
588
73438
A Combined Fiber-Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance and ta2o5: rgo Nanocomposite Synergistic Scheme for Trace Detection of Insecticide Fenitrothion
Abstract:
The unbridled application of insecticides to enhance agricultural yield has become a matter of grave concern to both the environment and the human health and, thus pose a potential threat to sustainable development. Fenitrothion is an extensively used organophosphate insecticide whose residues are reported to be extremely toxic for birds, humans and aquatic life. A sensitive, swift and accurate detection protocol for fenitrothion is, thus, highly demanded. In this work, we report an SPR based fiber optic sensor for the detection of fenitrothion, where a nanocomposite arrangement of Ta2O5 and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (Ta₂O₅: rGO) decorated on silver coated unclad core region of an optical fiber forms the sensing channel. A nanocomposite arrangement synergistically integrates the properties of involved components and consequently furnishes a conducive framework for sensing applications. The modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer on exposure to fenitrothion solutions of diverse concentration forms the sensing mechanism. This modification is reflected in terms of the shift in resonance wavelength. Experimental variables such as the concentration of rGO in the nanocomposite configuration, dip time of silver coated fiber optic probe for deposition of sensing layer and influence of pH on the performance of the sensor have been optimized to extract the best performance of the sensor. SPR studies on the optimized sensing probe reveal the high sensitivity, wide operating range and good reproducibility of the fabricated sensor, which unveil the promising utility of Ta₂O₅: rGO nanocomposite framework for developing an efficient detection methodology for fenitrothion. FOSPR approach in cooperation with nanomaterials projects the present work as a beneficial approach for fenitrothion detection by imparting numerous useful advantages such as sensitivity, selectivity, compactness and cost-effectiveness.
587
73444
Malate Dehydrogenase Enabled Zno Nanowires as an Optical Tool for Malic Acid Detection in Horticultural Products
Abstract:
Malic acid is an extensively distributed organic acid in numerous horticultural products in minute amounts which significantly contributes towards taste determination by balancing sugar and acid fractions. An enhanced concentration of malic acid is utilized as an indicator of fruit maturity. In addition, malic acid is also a crucial constituent of several cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. An efficient detection and quantification protocol for malic acid is thus highly demanded. In this study, we report a novel detection scheme for malic acid by synergistically collaborating fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FOSPR) and distinctive features of nanomaterials favorable for sensing applications. The design blueprint involves the deposition of an assembly of malate dehydrogenase enzyme entrapped in ZnO nanowires forming the sensing route over silver coated central unclad core region of an optical fiber. The formation and subsequent decomposition of the enzyme-analyte complex on exposure of the sensing layer to malic acid solutions of diverse concentration results in modification of the dielectric function of the sensing layer which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. Optimization of experimental variables such as enzyme concentration entrapped in ZnO nanowires, dip time of probe for deposition of sensing layer and working pH range of the sensing probe have been accomplished through SPR measurements. The optimized sensing probe displays high sensitivity, broad working range and a minimum limit of detection value and has been successfully tested for malic acid determination in real samples of fruit juices. The current work presents a novel perspective towards malic acid determination as the unique and cooperative combination of FOSPR and nanomaterials provides myriad advantages such as enhanced sensitivity, specificity, compactness together with the possibility of online monitoring and remote sensing.
586
77979
Bi-Lateral Comparison between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the Calibration of an Optical Spectrum Analyzer
Abstract:
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology requires tight specification and therefore measurement of wavelength accuracy and stability of the telecommunication lasers. Therefore, calibration of the used Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSAs) that are used to measure wavelength is of a great importance. Proficiency testing must be performed on such measuring activity to insure the accuracy of the measurement results. In this paper, a new comparison scheme is introduced to test the performance of such calibrations. This comparison scheme is implemented between NIS-Egypt and NMISA-South Africa for the calibration of the wavelength scale of an OSA. Both institutes employ reference gas cell to calibrate OSA according to the standard IEC/BS EN 62129 (2006). The result of this comparison is compiled in this paper.
585
69652
Linearly Polarized Single Photon Emission from Nonpolar, Semipolar and Polar Quantum Dots in GaN/InGaN Nanowires
Abstract:
The study reports how the pencil-like morphology of a homoepitaxially grown GaN nanowire can be exploited for the fabrication of a thin conformal InGaN nanoshell, hosting nonpolar, semipolar and polar single photon sources (SPSs). All three SPS types exhibit narrow emission lines (FWHM~0.35 - 2 meV) and high degrees of linear optical polarization (P > 70%) in the low-temperature micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) experiments and are characterized by a pronounced antibunching in the photon correlation measurements (gcorrected(2)(0) < 0.3). The quantum-dot-like exciton localization centers induced by compositional fluctuations within the InGaN nanoshell are identified as the driving mechanism for the single photon emission. As confirmed by the low-temperature transmission electron microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (TEM-CL) study, the crystal region (i.e. non-polar m-, semi-polar r- and polar c-facets) hosting the single photon emitters strongly affects their emission wavelength, which ranges from ultra-violet for the non-polar to visible for the polar SPSs. The photon emission lifetime is also found to be facet-dependent and varies from sub-nanosecond time scales for the non- and semi-polar SPSs to a few nanoseconds for the polar ones. These differences are mainly attributed to facet-dependent indium content and electric field distribution across the hosting InGaN nanoshell. The hereby reported pencil-like InGaN nanoshell is the first single nanostructure able to host all three types of single photon emitters and is thus a promising building block for tunable quantum light devices integrated into future photonic and optoelectronic circuits.
584
72859
Synthesising Highly Luminescent CdTe Quantum Dots Using Cannula Hot Injection Method
Abstract:
Recently, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have drawn increasing attention due to their unique size tunability, which makes them potential candidates for numerous applications including photovoltaic, LEDs, and imaging. However, the main challenge to exploit CQDs properly is that there has not been an effective method to produce them with highly crystalline form and narrow size dispersion. Hot injection method is one of the widely used techniques to produce high-quality nanoparticles. In this method, the key parameter is to reduce the time for injection of the precursors into each other, which yields fast and constant nucleation rate and hence to highly monodisperse QDs. In conventional hot injection method, the injection of precursors is carried out using standard lab syringes with long needles. However, this technique is relatively slow and thus will result in poor optical properties in QDs. In this work, highly luminescent CdTe QDs were synthesised by transferring hot precursors into each other using cannula method. Unlike regular syringe technique, with the help of high pressure difference between two precursors’ flasks and wide cross-section of cannula, the hot cannulation process is too short which yields narrow size distribution and high quantum yield of CdTe QDs. Here QDs with full width half maximum (FWHM) of 28 nm was achieved. In addition, the photoluminescence quantum yield of our samples was measured to be about 21 ± 0.9 which is at least twice the previous record values for CdTe QDs wherein syringe was used to transfer precursors.
583
75942
Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides
Abstract:
We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.
582
64970
Nonlinear Optical Properties for Different Kinds of Three-Level Atoms
Abstract:
The interaction of light with matter starts with the electric field exerting a force on the electrons that are bound to the nuclei. The strength of the electric field is usually small and the resulting effect is that the electron cloud distribution is slightly perturbed by the incident electric field. The polarization induced in a sample is proportional to the field. Following a Taylor expansion, the susceptibility can be written as a part corresponding to linear behavior applicable to strong electric fields. The more the higher-order effects contribute to the total response of the medium to external electric fields. Using Optical Bloch equation we did calculate the electric susceptibility for different kinds Three level atoms. We focused on the Λ-type, V-type. Both parts of the electric susceptibility, the real and imaginary ones were got for each kind with laser intensity about 3×10¹⁶ w/cm2.
581
74790
Raman Scattering Broadband Spectrum Generation in Compact Yb-Doped Fiber Laser
Authors:
Abstract:
Nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique has become one of the main techniques to achieve mode-locked fiber lasers for its compactness, implementation, and low cost. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on NPR technique in the all normal dispersion (ANDi) regime. In the laser cavity, there are no physical filter and polarization controller in laser cavity. Mode-locked pulse train is achieved in ANDi regime based on NPR technique. The fiber birefringence induced filtering effect is the main reason for mode-locking. After that, an extra 20 m long single mode fiber is inserted in two different positions, dissipative soliton operation and noise-like pulse operation are achieved correspondingly. The nonlinear effect is obviously enhanced in the noise-like pulse regime, and broadband spectrum generated owing to enhanced stimulated Raman scattering effect. When the pump power is 210 mW, the central wavelength is 1030 nm, and the corresponding 1st order Raman scattering stokes wave generates and locates at 1075 nm. When the pump power is 370 mW, the 1st and 2nd order Raman scattering stokes wave generate and locate at 1080 nm, 1126 nm respectively. When the pump power is 600 mW, the Raman continuum is generated with cascaded multi-order stokes waves, and the spectrum extends to 1188 nm. The total flat spectrum is from 1000 nm to 1200 nm. The maximum output average power is 14.75nJ.
580
77796
Kinetics and Adsorption Studies of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution Using Melon Husk
Abstract:
The adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solution was carried out using melon husk as a low-cost adsorbent. The adsorption was characterized using standard methods and values obtained were; pH = 7.80, bulk density = 0.43 g/mL, ash content = 2.2 %, moisture content = 8.27 %, attrition = 1%, and iodine number = 552 mg/g. Adsorption capacity was found to vary with initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature, the maximum adsorption capacity in each case was found to be at; 30 mg/L for concentration, 0.8 g for adsorbent dose, 5 for pH, 60 minutes for time and 30 °C for temperature. FTIR analysis was done to analyses the surface functional groups which shows the presence of O-H stretch, at 3743.92 corresponding to alcohol, phenols, C-H stretch at 2923.27 indicative of alkanes, H-C=O: C-H stretch at 2725.76 corresponding to aldehyde, C-C stretch at 1462.72 corresponding to aromatic, SEM analysis carried out revealed a rough and smooth morphology of the uncontacted and contacted adsorbent respectively. The experimental data judging from the R2 values fitted best into the Temkin isotherm. The fitting of tetracycline adsorption into the pseudo second order kinetic model (R2 of 0.9992) is suggestive of chemisorption for the adsorbent.
579
67334
The Data Acquisition Systems Debugger for Field-Programmable Gate Array-Based Data Acquisition System of the COMPASS Experiment
Abstract:
In general, state-of-the-art Data Acquisition Systems (DAQ) must satisfy the requirements of the reliability, the efficiency, and the data rate capability in high energy physics experiments. This paper presents the development and deployment of the DAQ Debugger for the intelligent, FPGA-based Data Acquisition System (iFDAQ) of the COMPASS experiment at CERN. Utilizing a hardware event builder, the iFDAQ is designed to be able to readout data at the average maximum rate of 1.5 GB/s of the experiment. In complex softwares, such as the iFDAQ, having thousands of lines of code, the debugging process is absolutely essential to reveal all software issues. Unfortunately, the conventional debugging of the iFDAQ is not possible during the real data taking. The DAQ Debugger is a tool for identifying a problem, isolating the source of the problem, and then either correcting the problem or determining a way to work around it. It provides the layer for an easy integration to any process and has no impact on the readout performance. Based on the handling of system signals, the DAQ Debugger represents an alternative to the conventional debuggers provided by most integrated development environments. Whenever any problem occurs, it generates reports containing all necessary information important for a deeper investigation and analysis. The DAQ Debugger was fully incorporated to all processes in the iFDAQ during the run 2016. It helped to reveal remaining software issues and improved significantly the stability of the system in comparison with the previous run. In the paper, we present the DAQ Debugger from several insights and discuss it in a detailed way.