International Science Index

International Journal of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

911
73476
Sick Minds and Social Media: Treacherous Trends in Online Stalking, Aggression, and Murder
Abstract:
This preliminary study has examined ways in which social media may help cause stalker murder by individuals with personality disorders and a strong sense of sexual propriety. A public display on social media by the intended victim was felt to be a trigger that instigated interpersonal violence. To identify behavioural paradigms, case studies of intimate partner murders were explored using news media sources and documentaries. In all of the case studies, social media interaction and social media postings occurred shortly before the murder. The evidence suggested a preponderance of correlations between the social media postings, stalking behaviours, personality disorders, and the murder of an intimate partner. In addition to this, a profile for of Facebook/social media murder was gleaned from the paradigms of behavior found in the case studies. The evidence showed a complex relationship between severe violence, stalking, borderline personality, and intimate partner violence was identified through the study. The struggle clients have in dealing with the: public, ambiguous and unrelenting nature of social media postings was also observed. The murderers anguish and rage appeared to be further intensified by attitudes of sexual propriety and entitlement. These attitudes were evident in all the case studies. The study concluded with further research on how the public can protect themselves from entering situations where social media postings might trigger a violent response. Further to this, psychological approaches were identified that might support client’s with personality disorders to cope with perceived provocative and distressing data on the internet. Thus, the findings of this study will be of interest to: therapists, psychologists, nurses, criminologists and social workers.
910
75196
Intensive Neurophysiological Rehabilitation System: New Approach for Treatment of Children with Autism
Abstract:
Introduction: Rehabilitation of children with Autism is the issue of the day in psychiatry and neurology. It is attributed to constantly increasing quantity of autistic children - Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Existing rehabilitation approaches in treatment of children with Autism improve their medico- social and social- psychological adjustment. Experience of treatment for different kinds of Autistic disorders in International Clinic of Rehabilitation (ICR) reveals the necessity of complex intensive approach for healing this malady and wider implementation of a Kozyavkin method for treatment of children with ASD. Methods: 19 children aged from 3 to 14 years were examined. They were diagnosed ‘Autism’ (F84.0) with comorbid neurological pathology (from pyramidal insufficiency to para- and tetraplegia). All patients underwent rehabilitation in ICR during two weeks, where INRS approach was used. INRS included methods like biomechanical correction of the spine, massage, physical therapy, joint mobilization, wax-paraffin applications. They were supplemented by art- therapy, ergotherapy, rhythmical group exercises, computer game therapy, team Olympic games and other methods for improvement of motivation and social integration of the child. Estimation of efficacy was conducted using parent’s questioning and done twice- on the onset of INRS rehabilitation course and two weeks afterward. For efficacy assessment of rehabilitation of autistic children in ICR standardized tool was used, namely Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). This scale was selected because any rehabilitation approaches for the child with Autism can be assessed using it. Results: Before the onset of INRS treatment mean score according to ATEC scale was 64,75±9,23, it reveals occurrence in examined children severe communication, speech, socialization and behavioral impairments. After the end of the rehabilitation course, the mean score was 56,5±6,7, what indicates positive dynamics in comparison to the onset of rehabilitation. Generally, improvement of psychoemotional state occurred in 90% of cases. Most significant changes occurred in the scope of speech (16,5 before and 14,5 after the treatment), socialization (15.1 before and 12,5 after) and behavior (20,1 before and 17.4 after). Conclusion: As a result of INRS rehabilitation course reduction of autistic symptoms was noted. Particularly improvements in speech were observed (children began to spell out new syllables, words), there was some decrease in signs of destructiveness, quality of contact with the surrounding people improved, new skills of self-service appeared. The prospect of the study is further, according to evidence- based medicine standards, deeper examination of INRS and assessment of its usefulness in treatment for Autism and ASD.
909
53474
Foundations for Global Interactions: The Theoretical Underpinnings of Understanding Others
Abstract:
In a course on International Psychology, 8 theoretical perspectives (Critical Psychology, Liberation Psychology, Post-Modernism, Social Constructivism, Social Identity Theory, Social Reduction Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory) are used as a framework for getting students to understand the concept of and need for Globalization. One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can impact the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people. Liberation psychology, also known as liberation social psychology or psicología social de la liberación, is an approach to psychological science that aims to understand the psychology of oppressed and impoverished communities by addressing the oppressive sociopolitical structure in which they exist. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. It stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. Lev Vygotsky argued that all cognitive functions originate in, and must therefore be explained as products of social interactions and that learning was not simply the assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge by learners. Social Identity Theory discusses the implications of social identity for human interactions with and assumptions about other people. Social Identification Theory suggests people: (1) categorize—people find it helpful (humans might be perceived as having a need) to place people and objects into categories, (2) identify—people align themselves with groups and gain identity and self-esteem from it, and (3) compare—people compare self to others. Social reductionism argues that all behavior and experiences can be explained simply by the affect of groups on the individual. Symbolic interaction theory focuses attention on the way that people interact through symbols: words, gestures, rules, and roles. Meaning evolves from human their interactions in their environment and with people. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of human learning describes learning as a social process and the origination of human intelligence in society or culture. The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. This presentation will discuss how these theoretical perspectives are incorporated into a course on International Psychology, a course on the Politics of Hate, and a course on the Psychology of Prejudice, Discrimination and Hate to promote student thinking in a more ‘global’ manner.
908
78466
Towards Establishing a Rationale for Unbundling Employee Psychological Ownership Perception: An Empirical Examination
Abstract:
Purpose: The need to attract employees’ emotional attachment to organisations has increased the attention of organisational psychology scholars to the theory of psychological ownership. Existing studies have either explained psychological ownership as a stressor or as a mediating variable in influencing a desired behavioural outcome. There is limited literature that explains how psychological ownership is formed. This study unbundles the concept of psychological ownership and highlights the antecedents that best influence its composite components. Approach: A quantitative approach is used to collect data from 1525 employees from public and private sector organisations in Nigeria. Findings: Findings show that on the overall, psychological ownership is influenced by both collective and individual identity antecedents. However, when examined at the individual component levels of psychological ownership, the impact is different with each component of psychological ownership. Originality: Investigating psychological ownership as a single construct may be misleading. Unbundling psychological ownership enables the investigation of antecedents that best suits the components of psychological ownership and its emergence. Implication: Managers understanding of psychological ownership is enhanced with knowledge of the type of factors that influence employees’ psychological ownership. This may enable them to concentrate on the factors that best suits their circumstances.
907
77867
Differences in Parental Acceptance, Rejection, and Attachment and Associations with Adolescent Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction
Abstract:
Research and theory suggest that parenting and parent-child attachment influence emotional development and well-being. Studies indicate that adolescents often describe differences in relationships with each parent and may form different types of attachment to mothers and fathers. During adolescence and young adulthood, romantic partners may also become attachment figures, influencing well being, and providing a relational context for emotion skill development. Mothers, however, tend to be remain the primary attachment figure; fathers and romantic partners are more likely to be secondary attachment figures. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) participants would rate mothers as more accepting and less rejecting than fathers, 2) participants would rate secure attachment to mothers higher and insecure attachment lower compared to father and romantic partner, 3) parental rejection and insecure attachment would be negatively related to life satisfaction and emotional intelligence, and 4) secure attachment and parental acceptance would be positively related life satisfaction and emotional intelligence. After IRB and informed consent, one hundred fifty adolescents and young adults (ages 11-28, M = 19.64; 71% female) completed an online survey. Measures included parental acceptance, rejection, attachment (i.e., secure, dismissing, and preoccupied), emotional intelligence (i.e., seeking and providing comfort, use, and understanding of self emotions, expressing warmth, understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs), and well-being (i.e., self-confidence and life satisfaction). As hypothesized, compared to fathers’, mothers’ acceptance was significantly higher t (190) = 3.98, p = .000 and rejection significantly lower t (190) = - 4.40, p = .000. Group differences in secure attachment were significant, f (2, 389) = 40.24, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and fathers and between mothers and romantic partners; mothers had the highest mean score. Group differences in preoccupied attachment were significant, f (2, 388) = 13.37, p = .000; post-hoc analyses revealed significant differences between mothers and romantic partners, and between fathers and romantic partners; mothers have the lowest mean score. However, group differences in dismissing attachment were not significant, f (2, 389) = 1.21, p = .30; scores for mothers and romantic partners were similar; father means score was highest. For hypotheses 3 and 4 significant negative correlations were found between life satisfaction and dismissing parent, and romantic attachment, preoccupied father and romantic attachment, and mother and father rejection variables; secure attachment variables and parental acceptance were positively correlated with life satisfaction. Self-confidence was correlated only with mother acceptance. For emotional intelligence, seeking and providing comfort were negatively correlated with parent dismissing and mother rejection; secure mother and romantic attachment and mother acceptance were positively correlated with these variables. Use and understanding of self-emotions were negatively correlated with parent and partner dismissing attachment, and parent rejection; romantic secure attachment and parent acceptance were positively correlated. Expressing warmth was negatively correlated with dismissing attachment variables, romantic preoccupied attachment, and parent rejection; whereas attachment secure variables were positively associated. Understanding and responding to others’ emotional needs were correlated with parent dismissing and preoccupied attachment variables and mother rejection; only secure father attachment was positively correlated.
906
77552
The Effect of Mindfulness on Eating Enjoyment and Behavior in Preschool and Elementary Children: A Field Experiment across Four Schools
Abstract:
Sixty-five children across four school research sites participated in the present experiment, which was designed to examine whether mindfulness promotes eating enjoyment and diverse eating behaviors in preschool- and early elementary-age children. Children, ages 3-9 years old, were randomly assigned to a 4-week mindfulness intervention condition or a 4-week exposure, control condition. Each week for four days, children received one of four different foods (celery, cauliflower, kidney beans, or garbanzo beans). Children either received instructions to mindfully engage with the food or were given the food and allowed to eat without mindfulness prompts from the researchers. Following the eating exercise, they recorded the amount eaten and rated their enjoyment level. Across all sessions, researchers modeled eating behaviors for the children by eating all the offered food. Results suggested that a brief mindfulness intervention promoted more diverse eating behaviors and more overall food consumption of typically not preferred and unfamiliar foods (celery, cauliflower, and garbanzo beans), compared with an exposure, control condition in preschool children and elementary-age children. However, food enjoyment ratings did not significantly differ between the two conditions for any of the foods. Implications of the finding for addressing eating behavior of young children are considered.
905
76377
Making a Case for Girls' Well-Being: The Impact of Strengths-Based Learning in a Kenyan Primary School
Abstract:
As principles of positive education are increasingly recognized and implemented in classrooms within the U.S. and globally, social-emotional learning has emerged as a promising mediator for the well-being of children. The social-emotional learning proposition is elegantly simple: Well-being is teachable; its evidence-base for character strength development is demonstrable; and its outcomes and protective factors are measurable. The implications for social-emotional learning in a global context are timely, especially as the global education movement continues to emerge at the forefront of educational policy in the 21st century. As some of the most promising possibilities for teaching children to tap into their social-emotional resources exist today in the developing world; this research explores the efficacy of social-emotional learning in a primary school setting in rural, Eastern Kenya. Because barriers to thriving and succeeding academically and developmentally are uniquely felt by female children in Kenya, particular focus is placed on how social-emotional learning may address gender-based inequities that manifest in the personal, social, and academic experience of Kenyan girls. A key aim of this research is thus to apply current thinking in the fields of positive education, positive youth development, and global education to a culturally-relevant, social-emotional learning curriculum that may be scaled and replicated. The curriculum selected for this research is that which was designed by the Kenya Education Empowerment Project (KEEP), incorporating evidence-based social-emotional learning techniques into facilitated dialogue, developmentally-appropriate classroom interactions, and opportunities for self-reflection and writing. The KEEP curriculum takes a ‘whole community’ approach and relies on dialogical practices to create a learning community and foster a culture of evaluation. This research will thus investigate the hypothesis that the recognition and amplification of character strengths, through the delivery of the KEEP strengths-based curriculum, will result in a measurable, evidence-based increase in the subjective well-being of children. With particular focus on female learners, this project also looks at the potential for a social-emotional learning intervention of the type that KEEP offers, to differentially impact behavioral and cognitive outcomes for girls. The research assesses a sample of 150 Kenyan upper-primary school learners, using a quantitative, pre-test/post-test research design. The metric for assessing well-being is the KIDSCREEN-27, a cross-culturally relevant measure that employs a self-report, Rasch scale questionnaire assessing Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) along five dimensions, including Physical Well-Being, Psychological Well-being, Autonomy and Parents, Peers and Social Support, and School Environment. Results will be reported and implication for social-emotional learning-centered global educational reform will be discussed. This research is part of an on-going study conducted by investigators at William James College. It is particularly relevant, as it is undertaken concurrent with the rolling-out by Kenya’s Ministry of Education, of a nationwide pilot program to introduce a skills-centered system with contextual relevance for learners and a holistic focus that seeks to prepare learners for global citizenship.
904
77871
EGF Serum Level in Diagnosis and Prediction of Mood Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults
Abstract:
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a well-known neurotrophic factor that involves in neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity. The proteomic research provided in order to identify novel candidate biological markers for mood disorders focused on elevated EGF serum level in patients during depression episode. However, the EGF association with mood disorder spectrum among adolescents and young adults has not been studied extensively. In this study, we aim to investigate the serum levels of EGF in adolescents and young adults during hypo/manic, depressive episodes and in remission compared to healthy control group. In our study, we involved 80 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorder spectrum, and 35 healthy volunteers matched by age and gender. Diagnoses were established according to DSM-IV-TR criteria using structured clinical interviews: K-SADS for child and adolescents, and SCID for young adults. Clinical and biological evaluations were made at baseline and euthymic mood (at 3th or 6th month of treatment and after 1 and 2 years). The Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were used for assessment. The study protocols were approved by the relevant ethics committee. Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human EGF (cat. no DY 236) DuoSet ELISA kit was used (R&D Systems). Serum EGF levels were analysed with following variables: age, age under 18 and above 18 years old, sex, family history of affective disorders, drug-free vs. medicated. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the normality of the data. The homogeneity of variance was calculated with Levene’s test. EGF levels showed non-normal distribution and the homogeneity of variance was violated. Non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient was applied in the analyses The statistical significance level was set at p
903
77895
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and It's Precursor Pro-BDNF Serum Levels in Adolescents with Mood Disorders: 2-Year Follow-up Study
Abstract:
Introduction: Neurotrophic factors have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) influences neuron differentiation in development as well as synaptic plasticity and neuron survival in adulthood. BDNF is widely studied in mood disorders and has been proposed as a biomarker for depression. BDNF is synthesized as precursor protein – proBDNF. Both forms are biologically active and exert opposite effects on neurons. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the serum levels of BDNF and proBDNF in unipolar and bipolar young patients below 24 years old during hypo/manic, depressive episodes and in remission compared to healthy control group. Methods: In a prospective 2 years follow-up study, we investigated alterations in levels of BDNF and proBDNF in 79 patients (23 males, mean age 19.08, SD 3.3 and 56 females, mean age 18.39, SD 3.28) diagnosed with mood disorders: unipolar and bipolar disorder compared with 35 healthy control subjects (7 males, mean age 20.43, SD 4.23 and 28 females, mean age 21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical characteristics including mood, comorbidity, family history, and treatment, were evaluated during control visits and clinical symptoms were rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. Serum BDNF and proBDNF concentrations were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Serum BDNF and proBDNF levels were analysed with covariates: sex, age, age > 18 and < 18 years old, family history of affective disorders, drug-free vs. medicated status. Normality of the data was tested using Shapiro-Wilk test. Levene’s test was used to calculate homogeneity of variance. Non-parametric Tests: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient were applied in analyses The statistical significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: BDNF and proBDNF serum levels did not differ between patients at baseline and controls as well as comparing patients in acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6). Comparing BDNF and proBDNF levels between patients in euthymia and control group no differences have been found. Increased BDNF level in women compared to men at baseline (p=0.01) have been observed. BDNF level at baseline was negatively correlated with depression and mania occurence at 24 month (p=0.04). BDNF level at 12 month was negatively correlated with depression and mania occurence at 12 month (p=0.01). Correlation of BDNF level with sex have been detected (p=0.01). proBDNF levels at month 3, 6 and 12 negatively correlated with disease status (p=0.02, p=0.008, p=0.009, respectively). No other correlations of BDNF and proBDNF levels with clinical and demographical variables have been detected. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in BDNF and proBDNF levels between depression, mania, euthymia, and controls. Imbalance in BDNF/proBDNF signalling may be involved in pathogenesis of mood disorders. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.
902
77911
The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Stem Cell Factor Levels in Serum of Adolescent and Young Adults with Mood Disorders: A Two Year Follow-Up Study
Abstract:
Introduction: Inflammation and cytokines have emerged as a promising target in mood disorders research; however there are still very limited numbers of study regarding inflammatory alterations among adolescents and young adults with mood disorders. The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) are the pleiotropic cytokines which may play an important role in mood disorders pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of these factors in serum of adolescent and young adults with mood disorders compared to healthy controls. Subjects: We involved 79 patients aged 12-24 years in 2-year follow-up study with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders: bipolar disorder (BP) and unipolar disorder with BP spectrum. Study group includes 23 males (mean age 19.08, SD 3.3) and 56 females (18.39, SD 3.28). Control group consisted 35 persons: 7 males (20.43, SD 4.23) and 28 females (21.25, SD 2.11). Clinical diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were assessed using Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (SCID) in young adults respectively. Clinical assessment includes evaluation of clinical factors and symptoms severity (rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale). Clinical and biological evaluations were made at control visits respectively at baseline (week 0), euthymia (at month 3 or 6) and after 12 and 24 months. Methods: Serum protein concentration was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) method. Human MIF and SCF DuoSet ELISA kits were used. In the analyses non-parametric tests were used: Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Friedman’s ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Spearman correlation. We defined statistical significance as p < 0.05. Results: Comparing MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania at baseline and euthymia (at month 3 or 6) we did not find any statistical differences. At baseline patients with age above 18 years old had decreased MIF level compared to patients younger than 18 years. MIF level at baseline positively correlated with age (p=0.004). Positive correlations of SCF level at month 3 and 6 with depression or mania occurrence at month 24 (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively) was detected. Strong correlations between MIF and SCF levels at baseline (p=0.0005) and month 3 (p=0.03) were observed. Discussion: Our results did not show any differences in MIF and SCF levels between acute episode of depression/hypo/mania and euthymia in young patients. Further studies on larger groups are recommended. Grant was founded by National Science Center in Poland no 2011/03/D/NZ5/06146.
901
77394
Grandparent's Psychologically Control, Parent's Well-Being and the Coparenting Practice among Vietnamese Families
Abstract:
Parenting psychological control (PPC) is a parenting manner of which intrusive tactics such as guilt induction, shaming or love withdrawal is adopted to manipulate the child's behavior, emotion and beliefs. PPC has been widely reported to be associated with both psychological dysfunction and low self-esteem in adolescents. Highly demanding and restrictive parenting was also found to related to high rate of risk behaviors, depression, anxiety and anti-social behaviors in adults who co-live with their parents. In many cultures like that of Asia, adults keep on co-live with their parents even after having their own families, and this is not an uncommon practice. Due to the culture obligation of family relationship and the filial piety, children are expected to stay with their parents to taking care of them when they get older, and the parents are also expected to co-live with their children in order to support them with grandchild care. As one become a grandparent, however, it does not means one stop being the parent to their own child. The effect of PPC if exist thus might continue to interfere one’s relationship with their adult children and also their adult child’s parenting. This study was designed to examine that effect of PPC on adults’ life as parents. Data was collected from 501 Vietnamese parents whose children between the age of 2 to 12 and having their parent living with them or taking care of the grandchild on daily basic. Findings show that grandparent psychological control (GPPC) is significantly associated with parent’s harsh parenting, parent’s well-being, and parent-grandparent coparenting relationship. Significantly, GPPC is the strongest predictor for the coparenting conflict between parent and grandparent.
900
77676
Clothing and Personnel Selection: An Experimental Study to Test the Effects of Dress Style on Hirability Perceptions
Abstract:
The so called “red sneakers effect” refers to people’s inclination to infer status and competence from signals of nonconformity. In the current research, we explore an untested possible boundary condition to the red sneakers effect within the context of personnel selection. In two experimental studies (total N = 156), we examined how (non)conforming dress style interacts with the quality of a job applicant’s resume to determine hirability perceptions. We found that dress style indeed impacts hirability perceptions, but that the exact impact depends on the quality of the applicant’s resume. Results revealed that applicants with a low quality resume were punished for behaving in a nonconforming way, whereas applicants with a high quality resume appeared to have the leeway to dress as they please. Importantly, the observed interaction effect was mediated by perceptions of power. These findings suggest that nonconforming dress acts as a power-signaling mechanism in the context of personnel selection. However, the signaling effects of non-conforming dress style can backfire when accompanied by evidence that such posturing is not matched by cues of actual competence.
899
61062
Uncloaking Priceless Pieces of Evidence: Psychotherapy with an Older New Zealand Man; Contributions to Understanding Hidden Historical Phenomena and the Trans-Generation Transmission of Silent and Un-Witnessed Trauma
Abstract:
This paper makes use of the case notes of a single psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy of a now 72-year-old man over a four-year period to explore the potential of qualitative data to be incorporated into a research methodology that can contribute theory and knowledge to the wider professional community involved in mental health care. The clinical material arising out of any psychoanalysis provides a potentially rich source of clinical data that could contribute valuably to our historical understanding of both individual and societal traumata. As psychoanalysis is primarily an investigation, it is argued that clinical case material is a rich source of qualitative data which has relevance for sociological and historical understandings and that it can potentially aluminate important ‘gaps’ and collective blind spots that manifest unconsciously and are a contributing factor in the transmission of trauma, silently across generations. By attending to this case material the hope is to illustrate the value of using a psychoanalytic centred methodology. It is argued that the study of individual defences and the manner in which they come into consciousness, allows an insight into group defences and the unconscious forces that contribute to the silencing or un-noticing of important sources (or originators) of mental suffering.
898
77982
Construction and Psychometric Characteristics of a Gender Group Identification Scale
Abstract:
Personal identity is the basis of a person's thoughts and actions and reflects the unique attributes of the person, while social identity is the basis for thoughts and actions among the members of a group and reflects the attributes and norms of the group that are internalized by the individual. Membership in social groups is fundamental for the survival of individuals. Throughout life, people belong to various groups depending on their gender, age, social class, nationality, occupation, etc., which have different levels of importance in their self-concept. The combinations of identities can interact with each other to form a unique social identity. One of the most important elements in the formation of social identity is the identification of gender, which refers to the degree in which belonging to a gender is important for the self-concept of individuals. The level of identification with a group as well as the valuation of their membership has an effect on several psychological variables such as the perception of personal competence, security, adaptation to the environment, behaviors to help others and the self-esteem, so it is important to have a valid and reliable scale to measure this construct. Historically, it has been measured with four items that only measure the degree of identification with the group, but not the evaluation of the group. Therefore, the present research develops and psychometrically analyzes the instrument of group identification of gender in a sample of 350 Mexican people between 18 and 27 years. Evidence of the construct validity of the instrument was obtained through a factorial analysis of principal components with Kaiser normalization and orthogonal rotation. The results indicate that the construct is composed with two factors and that the scale has appropriate psychometric characteristics, so it is a reliable scale for measuring the construct in both men and women.
897
77987
Effect of WAY 100,635 on the Behavioral Indicators of Anxiety and Anhedonia after Exposure to Chronic Stress
Abstract:
The serotonergic system is particularly involved in the regulation of the stress response, in fact, one of the main treatments for stress-related disorders is the use of serotonergic antidepressants. However, the specific mechanism by which they exert their therapeutic effect in such disorders remains unknown. 5-HT1A receptors play an important role in the mechanism of regulation of the stress response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT1A receptor-specific antagonist drug (WAY 100,635) on behavioral indicators of stress. We used 40 male Wistar rats of 250-350 grams housed in standard laboratory conditions and treated in accordance with the ethical standards of use and care of laboratory animals. Rats were subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress protocol for ten days; then they were divided into four groups to be administered with WAY 100,635 at doses 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg respectively. The administration was intraperitoneal with saline as a vehicle for seven days. Finally, they were measured in tests of anxiety, anhedonia, and cognition. Statistically significant differences were found in all tests between groups, showing an anxiolytic effect of WAY 100,635 on the stress model, these results are related to the effect of the drug on the 5-HT1A autoreceptors, and it suggests that these particular receptors are importantly involved in the mechanisms of regulation of stress response.
896
76676
Women Leadership in Higher Education in South Africa
Abstract:
There appears to be a paucity of research on women leadership in higher education institutions (HEIs) from a system dynamic perspective. The number of women leaders in South Africa is increasing, and the request for gender-sensitive leadership training to optimise their health and well-being, is growing in demand. This study’s purpose is to explore women leadership in HEIs from a system psychodynamic stance using the Conflict, Identity, Boundaries, Authority, Roles, Task (CIBART) model, thereby contributing to the organisational research on women leader's health and well-being. It is a qualitative study based on the research paradigm of Dilthey's modern hermeneutics. Interviews were conducted with twenty-three women leaders from the HERS-SA (Higher Education Research Service) network across eight institutions. Observations were conducted in one organisation to support the data analysis and interpretation. Data were analysed through content analysis. The findings show that women leaders find themselves in a constant re-evaluation and reconstruction process in terms of the CIBART model. They experience CIBART as strongly related to gendered experiences, racial aspects, and other diversity markers. The experience of de-authorisation and role confusion seems to be problematic, and it impacts negatively on women's health and well-being in the workplace. The study provides new and valuable insights into the CIBART model in the described context and highlights health-related aspects, which women leadership training should address. The findings also provide a base for future research on women leaders, based on a psychodynamic framework by addressing their needs and the unconscious aspects involved which impact on their health and well-being.
895
75534
When Psychology Meet Ecology: Cognitive Flexibility for Quarry Rehabilitation
Abstract:
Ecological projects are often faced with reluctance from local communities hosting the project especially when this project involves variation from preset ideas or classical practices. This paper aims at appreciating the contribution of environmental psychology through cognitive flexibility exercises to improve the acceptability of local communities in adopting a more adapted ecological rehabilitation scenario. The study is based on two quarry sites located in Bekaa- Lebanon. Four groups were considered with different levels of involvement, as follows: Group 1; 50h of on-site training over 8 months, Group 2; 2 h of awareness raising session, Group 3; 2 h of flexibility exercises and a control group. The results show that persons who followed flexibility sessions accept comparably the ecological rehabilitation option over the more classical one. This is also the case for the people who followed a more time-demanding on-site training. Another experience was conducted on a third quarry site combining flexibility with awareness-raising. This research confirms that it is possible to reduce resistance to change thanks to an intervention limited in time. This methodological approach could be transferable to other environmental problems involving local communities and changes in preset perceptions.
894
77010
The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes
Abstract:
This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.
893
77064
Factors in the Journey towards the Adoption of Sustainable Home Improvements by Home Owner Associations: A Qualitative Study
Abstract:
A large amount of dwellings in the Netherlands are collectively owned. By law, these properties must have a homeowner association (HOA) in which all owners are united. All members have a vote regarding maintenance and enhancements, including energy efficiency and energy production investments. No single household is allowed to invest in sustainable improvements that affect collective parts of the property, such as the roof. Homeowners will have to come to an agreement together. This makes the process complicated, and time and effort consuming, also for the involved product and service providers. In the current research, factors are uncovered that have an effect on the decision-making process from orientation until the official voting. In addition, it was explored how HOAs are currently being supported in their journey towards adopting sustainable home improvements. In order to uncover the relevant factors semi-structured interviews were held with eight product or service providers to HOAs, and with twenty HOA members (mostly chairmen) who experienced a successful or unsuccessful process towards sustainable home improvements. Findings were mapped onto the customer journey model in order to structure the experiences of HOAs during the dynamic decision making process. The results show that HOAs go through a journey consisting of five steps, from the search for possible enhancements until the meeting where all members vote about the sustainable enhancement. The journey is triggered by an internal motive (e.g., a high energy bill) or an external motive (e.g. a friend who recommends solar PV), and usually takes a couple of years. In each step, there are a number of factors that play an important role, with a total of fourteen factors. These factors can be rational (e.g., the amount of up-to-date knowledge about sustainable technologies; and the financial resources) or relational (e.g., the engagement of members; and the presence of a leader). Regarding the support for HOAs, the available information for HOAs is fragmented. In addition, there are relatively few tools available to support HOAs in their journey compared to the support that is available for private home owners. The rare tools that are available focus on the beginning and the end of the journey. Also, the subsidies that are available do not match with the journey of HOAs. As a consequence of the complex decision making process and the lack of support tools to help the decision makers (HOAs) these dwellings aren’t energy efficient nor producing energy. Hereby not fulfilling the enormous assignment of the Paris Climate Goals. In conclusion, there is an urgency and a lot of potential to stimulate and support HOAs. Insights in the journey – and the factors in each step – can be used by product and service providers that (would like to) stimulate and facilitate HOAs. By identifying in which step of the journey a HOA is at a certain point in time, they can adapt their services to the relevant factors. Hereby the process will become more efficient and effective.
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Comparing Perceived Restorativeness in Natural and Urban Environment: A Meta-Analysis
Abstract:
A growing body of empirical research from different areas of inquiry suggest that brief contact with natural environment restore mental resources. The Attention Restoration Theory (ART) is the widely used and empirical founded theory developed to explain why exposure to nature helps people to recovery cognitive resources. It assumes that contact with nature allows people to free (and then recovery) voluntary attention resources and thus allows them to recover from a cognitive fatigue situation. However, it was suggested that some people could have more cognitive benefit after exposure to urban environment.The objective of this study is to report the results of a meta-analysis of studies (peer-reviewed articles) comparing the restorativeness (the quality to be restorative) perceived in natural environments than those perceived in urban environments. This meta-analysis intended to estimate how much nature environments (forests, parks, boulevards) are perceived to be more restorativeness than urban ones (i.e., the magnitude of the perceived restorativeness’ difference). Moreover, given the methodological difference betweenstudy, it studied the potential role of moderator variables as participants (student or other), instrument used (Perceived Restorativeness Scale or other), and procedure (in laboratory or in situ).PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Scopus, SpringerLINK, Web Of Science online database were used to identify all peer-review articles on restorativeness published to date (k = 167). Reference sections of obtained papers were examined for additional studies. Only 22 independent studies (with a total of 1677 participants) met inclusion criteria (direct exposure to environment, comparison between one outdoor environment with natural element and one without natural element, and restorativeness measured by self-report scale) and were included in meta-analysis. To estimate the average effect size, a random effect model (Restricted Maximum-likelihood estimator) was used because the studies included in the meta-analysis were conducted independently and using different methods in different populations, so no common effect-size was expected. The presence of publication bias was checked using trim and fill approach. Univariate moderator analysis (mixed effect model) were run to determine whether the variable coded moderated the perceived restorativeness difference. Results show that natural environments are perceived to be more restorativeness than urban environments, confirming from an empirical point of view what is now considered a knowledge gained in environmental psychology. The relevant information emerging from this study is the magnitude of the estimated average effect size, which is particularly high (d = 2.06) compared to those that are commonly observed in psychology. Significant heterogeneity between study was found (Q(20) = 502.31, p < .001;) and studies’ variability was very high (I2[C.I.]= 97.21% [95.18 – 98.75]). Subsequent univariate moderator analysis were not significant. Methodological difference (participants, instrument, and procedure) did not explain variability between study. Other methodological difference (e.g., research design, environment’s characteristics, light’s condition) could explain this variability between study. In the mine while, studies’ variability could be not due to methodological difference but to individual difference (age, gender, education level) and characteristics (connection to nature, environmental attitude). Furthers moderator analysis are working in progress.
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Perceived Restorativeness Scale– 6: A Short Version of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale for Mixed (or Mobile) Devices
Abstract:
Most of the studies on the ability of environments to recover people’s cognitive resources have been conducted in laboratory using simulated environments (e.g., photographs, videos, or virtual reality), based on the implicit assumption that exposure to simulated environments has the same effects of exposure to real environments. However, the technical characteristics of simulated environments, such as the dynamic or static characteristics of the stimulus, critically affect their perception. Measuring perceived restorativeness in situ rather than in laboratory could increase the validity of the obtained measurements. Personal mobile devices could be useful because they allow accessing immediately online surveys when people are directly exposed to an environment. At the same time, it becomes important to develop short and reliable measuring instruments that allow a quick assessment of the restorative qualities of the environments. One of the frequently used self-report measures to assess perceived restorativeness is the “Perceived Restorativeness Scale” (PRS) based on Attention Restoration Theory. A lot of different versions have been proposed and used according to different research purposes and needs, without studying their validity. This longitudinal study reported some preliminary validation analyses on a short version of original scale, the PRS-6, developed to be quick and mobile-friendly. It is composed of 6 items assessing fascination and being-away. 102 Italian university students participated to the study, 84% female with age ranging from 18 to 47 (M = 20.7; SD = 2.9). Data were obtained through a survey online that asked them to report their perceived restorativeness of the environment they were in (and the kind of environment) and their positive emotion (Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, PANAS) once a day for seven days. Cronbach alpha and item-total correlations were used to assess reliability and internal consistency. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) models were run to study the factorial structure (construct validity). Correlation analyses between PRS and PANAS scores were used to check discriminant validity. In the end, multigroup CFA models were used to study measurement invariance (configural, metric, scalar, strict) between different mobile devices and between day of assessment. On the whole, the PRS-6 showed good psychometric proprieties, similar to those of the original scale, and invariance across devices and days. These results suggested that the PRS-6 could be a valid alternative to assess perceived restorativeness when researchers need a brief and immediate evaluation of the recovery quality of an environment.
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Qualitative Inquiry for Understanding Factors Associated to Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment
Abstract:
People who have experienced maltreatment in childhood subsequently face many parenting issues of their own, in particular when it comes to distancing themselves from the abusive behaviors they were exposed and had access to positive role models. Few studies have explored the factors explaining the ability to break the generational cycle of child maltreatment. However, deeper knowledge of the factors associated with intergenerational discontinuity could facilitate the development of innovative interventions and increase the preventive potential of existing programs. This poster presentation will be about a better understanding of the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment (IGTM) from the perspective of both youth protection workers and parents receiving child protection services. The data used to meet this goal were collected from a group interview with eight youth protection workers whose caseloads involved IGTM situations and through semi-structured interviews with four parents with a history of child protection services and who were currently receiving such services for at least one of their children. In the view of the youth protection workers, the IGTM refers to everything that is transmitted and not transmitted from one generation to the next within a family. The study participants painted quite a bleak portrait of the families affected by IGTM. However, three main avenues of intervention were mentioned by the participants: working within the network, favoring long-term interventions and being empathic. The results also show that the mothers were in a trajectory of intergenerational discontinuity in child maltreatment. Support from their families and friends as well as from formal support services brought out some possible explanatory factors for intergenerational discontinuity in child maltreatment. From a prevention perspective, developing meaningful and trusting relationships seems a source of resilience for parents who were placed in the care of the child protection system as children. The small number of participants limits the generalizability of these results. The difficulty of recruiting parents is a substantial challenge regarding gaining knowledge on the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment. Future studies should examine this question and seek to develop effective strategies to help recruit study participants.
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Gratitude, Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction in Dating College Students: A Parallel Multiple Mediator Model
Abstract:
Gratitude is one individual strength that not only facilitates the mental health, but also fosters the relationship satisfaction in the romantic relationship. In terms of moral effect theory and stress-and-coping theory of forgiveness, present study not only investigated the association between grateful disposition and relationship satisfaction, but also explored the mechanism by comprehensively examining the potential mediating roles of three profiles of forgiveness (trait forgivingness, decisional forgiveness, emotional forgiveness), another character strength that highly related to the gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct the multiple mediator model with a sample of 103 Chinese college students in dating relationship (39 male students and 64 female students, Mage = 19.41, SD = 1.34). Findings displayed that both gratitude and relationship satisfaction positively correlated with decisional forgiveness and emotional forgiveness. Emotional forgiveness was the only mediator, and it completely mediated the relationship between gratitude and relationship satisfaction. Gratitude was helpful in enhancing individuals’ perception of satisfaction in romantic relationship through replacing negative emotions toward partners with positive ones after transgression in daily life. It highlighted the function of emotional forgiveness in personal healing and peaceful state, which is important to the perception of satisfaction in relationship. Findings not only suggested gratitude could provide a stability for forgiveness, but also the mechanism of prosocial responses or positive psychological processes on relationship satisfaction. The significant roles of gratitude and emotional forgiveness could be emphasized in the intervention working on the romantic relationship development or reconciliation.
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Impact of Positive Psychology Education and Interventions on Well-Being
Abstract:
Interest in positive psychology is growing due to its emphasis on the assumption that people who are weighed down even by the heaviest psychological burdens care about much more in their lives than just the relief from their pathology. Positive psychology, thus, investigates human strengths and virtues and promotes well-being. Relying on this assumption, positive interventions have been continuously designed to build pleasure and happiness, joy and content, engagement and meaning, hope and optimism, satisfaction and gratitude, spirituality, and various other positive measures of well-being. In line with this model of positive psychology and interventions, this study investigated certain measures of well-being in a group of 45 students enrolled in an 18-week positive psychology course and simultaneously engaged in service-oriented interventions that they chose for themselves based on the course content and individual interests. Students’ well-being was measured at the beginning and end of the course. The well-being indicators included positive automatic thoughts, optimism and hope, satisfaction with life, and spirituality. A paired-samples t-test conducted to evaluate the impact of class content, and service-oriented interventions on students’ scores of well-being indicators indicated statistically significant increase from pre-class to post-class scores, with the effect sizes ranging from η² = .28 for Satisfaction with Life to η² = .43 for Hope. There were also significant gender differences in post-course well-being scores, with females having higher levels of well-being than males, η² = .16. A two-way between groups analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction effect of age by gender on the post-course well-being scores, F (4, 32) = 1.80, p < .05, partial η² = .10, with females in the age group of 56-65 having the highest scores of well-being in comparison to the males in the same age group. Regression analyses indicated that positive automatic thought significantly predicted hope (β = .37) and satisfaction with life (β = .67) in the pre-course analysis. In the post-course regression analysis, spiritual transcendence made a significant contribution to optimism (β = .37), and positive automatic thought made a significant contribution to both hope (β = .46) and satisfaction with life (β = .36). Finally, a significant test between pre-course and post-course regression coefficients indicated that the regression coefficients at pre-course were significantly different from post-course coefficients, suggesting that the positive psychology course and the interventions were helpful in raising the levels of well-being. The overall results suggest a substantial increase in the participants’ well-being scores after engaging in the positive-oriented interventions, implying a need for designing more positive interventions in education to promote well-being.
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A Qualitative Investigation in the Development of Sense of Coherence in Systemic Family Therapy Trainees
Abstract:
he study investigated the work-role of psychosocial flourishing attributes in countering workplace bullying behaviour and turnover intention. A cross-sectional research design was utilised. Data on participants’ perceptions of work-place bullying, turnover intention and psychosocial flourishing were collected from N = 373 employees in various South African organisations. The self-report questionnaires consisted of a section on socio-demographic information and three measuring instruments namely the Negative Act Questionnaire-revised, Flourishing scale, and Turnover Intention Scale. Simple mediation modelling was utilised to determine psychosocial flourishing effects on workplace bullying-turnover intention. The results showed strong perceptions of workplace bullying to be related to high turnover intention with psychosocial flourishing partially explaining lower levels of turnover intent from strong perceptions of workplace bullying. Work-role psychological flourishing might be beneficial to workplace health and psychological safety as well as for reducing unwanted turn-over.
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76091
Developing Faith and Vocation in Professional and Cultural Contexts
Abstract:
During the past decades, the faith development theory (FDT) of James Fowler has been strongly debated. It refers to a in-depth understanding of the conceptualisation of God, human core values, meanings and beliefs across the life span. It also touches on the idea of vocation. Research has highlighted that the exploration of faith development has hardly been researched from in-depth qualitative, autobiographical perspectives and within specific cultural and professional contexts. The aim of this autobiographical study is to explore the FDT in the context of the self and the development within changing cultural and professional contexts. In a broader sense, the study contributes to the exploration of how particular aspects of a selected life are remembered and (re-)constructed. The study is methodologically anchored in Dilthey's modern hermeneutics and uses a autoethnographic, reflexive study approach of a single case to increase in-depth knowledge on FDT within a specific changing cultural and professional context. Qualitative quality criteria and ethical considerations are applied. Findings show that FD and vocation are associated with the cultural and professional context of the subject. This subject is informed by the contextual environment and informs it vice versa through her faith development. Faith, vocation, the cultural and the professional context are interlinked and this autobiographical study explores the interlinking elements through Fowler's FDT. Findings show further that faith development and vocation serve a salutogenetic resources at work when consciously (re-)constructed and transformed into a fit with the professional and cultural embeddedness. Conclusions on how to develop faith and vocation in specific contexts are drawn and the influence of the cultural and professional context is explored. Recommendations for future research and applied psychological practice are given.
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Hope as a Predictor for Complicated Grief and Anxiety: A Bayesian Structural Equational Modeling Study
Abstract:
Bereavement is recognized as a universal challenging experience. It is important to gather research evidence on protective factors in bereavement. Hope is considered as one of the protective factors in previous coping studies. The present study aims to add knowledge by investigating hope at the first month after death to predict psychological symptoms altogether including complicated grief (CG), anxiety, and depressive symptoms at the seventh month. The data were collected via one-on-one interview survey in a longitudinal project with Hong Kong hospice users (sample size 105). Most participants were at their middle age (49-year-old on average), female (72%), with no religious affiliation (58%). Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM) analysis was conducted on the longitudinal dataset. The BSEM findings show that hope at the first month of bereavement negatively predicts both CG and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month but not for depressive symptoms. Age and gender are controlled in the model. The overall model fit is good. The current study findings suggest assessing hope at the first month of bereavement. Hope at the first month after the loss is identified as an excellent predictor for complicated grief and anxiety symptoms at the seventh month. The result from this sample is clear, so it encourages cross-cultural research on replicated modeling and development of further clinical application. Particularly, practical consideration for early intervention to increase the level of hope has the potential to reduce the psychological symptoms and thus to improve the bereaved persons’ wellbeing in the long run.
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The Mediation of Work-Role Psychosocial Flourishing on Workplace Bullying and Turnover Intention
Abstract:
The study investigated the work-role of psychosocial flourishing attributes in countering workplace bullying behaviour and turnover intention. A cross-sectional research design was utilised. Data on participants’ perceptions of workplace bullying, turnover intention, and psychosocial flourishing were collected from N = 373 employees in various South African organisations. The self-report questionnaires consisted of a section on socio-demographic information and three measuring instruments namely the Negative Act Questionnaire-revised, Flourishing Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. Simple mediation modelling was utilised to determine psychosocial flourishing effects on workplace bullying and turnover intention. The results showed strong perceptions of workplace bullying to be related to high turnover intention with psychosocial flourishing partially explaining lower levels of turnover intent from strong perceptions of workplace bullying. Work-role psychological flourishing might be beneficial to workplace health and psychological safety as well as for reducing unwanted turnover.
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77660
Personality-Focused Intervention for Adolescents: Impact on Bullying and Distress
Abstract:
Introduction: There is a lack of targeted prevention programs for reducing bullying and distress among adolescents involved in bullying. The current study aimed to examine the impact of a personality-targeted intervention (Preventure) on bullying (victimization and perpetration) and distress among adolescent victims/bullies with high-risk personality types. Method: A cluster randomized trial (RCT) was conducted in 26 secondary schools (2190 students) in NSW and Victoria, Australia, as part of the Climate Schools and Preventure trial. The schools were randomly allocated to Preventure (13 schools received Preventure, 13 did not). Students were followed up at 4 time points (6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-baseline). Preventure involves two group sessions, based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and tailored to four personality types shown to increase risk of substance misuse and other emotional and behavioural problems, including impulsivity, sensation-seeking, anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness. Students were allocated to the personality-targeted groups based on their scores on the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale. Bullying was measured using an amended version of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Scale. Psychological distress was measured using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Results: Among high-risk students classified as victims at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less victimization and distress over time than those in control schools. Among high-risk students classified as bullies at baseline, those in Preventure schools reported significantly less distress over time than those in control schools (no difference for perpetration). Conclusion: Preventure is a promising intervention for reducing bullying victimization and psychological distress among adolescents involved in bullying.
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Human Resource Practices and Employee Performance: The Mediating Role of Well-Being
Abstract:
Despite growing evidence of the existence of trade-offs between HR practices, employee well-being, and employee performance, the question remains how different dimensions of HR practices are associated with different types of employee well-being and different types of employee performance. The present study examines the associations between skill, motivation, and opportunity enhancing dimensions of HR practices and in-role and innovative job performance. It further considers the mediating effects of psychological, physical, and social employee well-being between these associations. Using data obtained from multiple sources, the results indicate that whereas physical and social employee well-being partially mediates the associations between skill- and opportunity-enhancing HR practices and in-role job performance, psychological employee well-being partially mediates the association between motivation-enhancing HR practices and innovative job performance. Our findings do not support the notion of trade-offs between HR practices, employee well-being, and employee performance, but rather advocate that employee well-being and employee performance can be parallel outcomes of HR practices.