International Science Index

International Journal of Social and Business Sciences

236
95253
An Exploratory Study Applied to the Accessibility of Local Museums in Nottingham
Abstract:
Visitors as the vital research group have been mentioned in high frequency in the field of museum studies. With the rise of the New Museology Movement, new challenges in the museum appeared, ranging from how to eliminate the cliché class prejudices in museums to how to make visitor-oriented museums more welcome. In line with this new situation, to create a successful visiting experience is the focus of museums in today. National museums as tourist attractions always attract flooded attention, however the local museums may have the different situations. The residents could be one of the main visitors to the local museums how to attract them returned should be considered here. There are various people with different cultural, education and religion backgrounds, it’s necessary to keep the balance of the education and entertainment to reach visitors’ expectations. Regarding these questions, a mixed methods research approach has been adopted: observations, tracking and questionnaires. Based on analysing a large amount of data collected in the two local museums in Nottingham, it can be argued that: 1) Audiences’ accessibility support their options and judgments during the visiting. 2) Highly inclusive architecture and narrative expressions could encourage the visitors to proceed deeply understanding and alleviate conflicts. In addition, main characteristics of the local museums and the interlinks between museums and urban renaissance will be clarified. The conclusion informs not only practical suggestions for reachable characteristic design, but also potential future research subjects.
235
90535
Implementation of Multimodal Biometrics Recognition System Combined Palm Print and Iris Features
Abstract:
With the extensive application, the performance of unimodal biometrics systems has to face a diversity of problems such as signal and background noise, distortion, and environment differences. Therefore, multimodal biometric systems are proposed to solve the above stated problems. This paper introduces a bimodal biometric recognition system based on the extracted features of the human palm print and iris. Palm print biometric is fairly a new evolving technology that is used to identify people by their palm features. The iris is a strong competitor together with face and fingerprints for presence in multimodal recognition systems. In this research, we introduced an algorithm to the combination of the palm and iris-extracted features using texture based descriptor the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). Since the feature sets are non-homogeneous as features of different biometric modalities are used, these features will be concatenated to form a single feature vector. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used as a feature selection technique to reduce the dimensionality of the feature .The proposed algorithm will be applied to the IITD database and its performance will be compared with various iris recognition algorithms found in the literature.
234
94495
Teacher's Gender and Primary School Pupils Achievement in Social Studies and Its Educational Implications on Pupils
Abstract:
This study is borne out of the dire need to improve the academic achievement of pupils in social studies. The paper attempted to reconcile the lacuna in teacher’s gender and primary school pupils’ achievement. With specific reference to Social Studies classroom, the aim of this study was to detail how pupils’ achievement is a function of the teacher’s gender as well as to establish the link (if any) between teacher’s gender and pupils’ educational achievement. The significance of this was to create gender-template standard for teachers, school owners, administrators and policy makers to follow in the course of engendering pupils’ achievement in Social Studies. By adopting a quasi-experimental research design, a sample of two hundred pupils was selected across five primary schools in Education District I, Lagos State and assigned to experimental and control groups. A 40-item Gender and Social Studies Achievement Test (GSSAT) was used to obtain data from the pupils. Having analyzed the data collected using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC), a reliability of 0.78 was obtained. Result revealed that teacher’s gender (male/female) had no significant effect on pupils’ achievement in Social Studies and that there was significant interaction effect of teacher’s commitment devoid of gender on the general education output of pupils in Social Studies. Taken together, the results revealed that there is a high degree correlation between teacher’s commitment and pupils academic achievement in social studies, and not gender-based. The study recommended that social studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional strategies and use more innovative instructional methods and techniques that will give the pupils equal opportunities to excel in social studies, rather than their gender differences.
233
95615
Cultural Consciousness in an Art Museum: A Case Study of Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Nusantara in Indonesia
Authors:
Abstract:
MACAN (Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art in Nusantara) is a new private art museum in Jakarta, Indonesia. Facing challenges of rapidly changing social, cultural environments, MACAN is responding by devoting themselves to not only presenting famous international artists but also constructing the context of artists from Indonesia by interdisciplinary education and cultural exchange. This paper discusses the exhibitions, collections and the activities of MACAN. The purpose of this museum is to make people aware of the dialogue between local and international artist, and also Indonesia’s own art history. Yet how they build up the cultural consciousness for their audience inside and outside Indonesia? What strategy or method do they adapt to enhance general understanding of their own history and the relation between Indonesia and the world through their exhibition? MACAN has tried to convey their mission by every action they took since its opening (2017). The discussion begins with the premise that the initiative of MACAN offers us a new vision to better understand how a modern and contemporary art museum can make an effort to connect art with cultural identity and stimulate the awareness of recognition in Indonesia. This paper will adopt a case study, curator interview, and document analysis. Last but not least, the paper seeks to contribute towards the narrative of its first exhibition Art Turns, World Turns, Exploring the collection of the MACAN, as well as the possibility of raising audience’s cultural consciousness by a variety of public programs.
232
93391
The Potential of Kepulauan Seribu as Marine-Based Eco-Geotourism Site: The Study of Carbonate Platform as Geotourism Object in Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta
Abstract:
Kepulauan Seribu National Parks is a marine preservation region in Indonesia. It is located in 5°23' - 5°40' LS, 106°25' - 106°37' BT North of Jakarta City. Covered with area 107,489 ha, Kepulauan Seribu has a lot of tourism spots such as cluster islands, fringing reef and many more. Kepulauan Seribu is also nominated as Strategic Tourism Region In Indonesia (KSPN). So, these islands have a lot of potential sides more than preservation function as a national park, hence the development of sustainable geotourism. The aim of this study is for enhancing the development of eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu. This study concern for three main aspect of eco-geotourism such as tourism, form and process. Study for the tourism aspect includes attractions, accommodations, tours, activities, interpretation, and planning & management in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the form aspect focused on the carbonate platform situated between two islands. Primarily in carbonate reef such as head coral, branchy coral, platy coral that created the carbonate sequence in Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the process aspect primarily discussed the process of forming of carbonate from carbonate factory later becomes Kepulauan Seribu. Study for the regional geology of Kepulauan Seribu has been conducted and suggested that Kepulauan Seribu lithologies are mainly quarternary limestone. In this study, primary data was taken from an observation of quarternary carbonate platform between two islands from Hati Island, Macan Island, Bulat Island, Ubi Island and Kelapa Island. From this observation, the best routes for tourist have been made from Island to Island. Qualitative methods such as depth interview to the local people in purposive sampling also have been made. Finally, this study also giving education about geological site – carbonate sequence - in Kepulauan Seribu for the local wisdom so that this study can support the development of sustainable eco-geotourism in Kepulauan Seribu.
231
95181
The Potential of Southern Malang as Geotourism Site: The Distribution of Geodiversity and Geotrek in Southern Malang, Indonesia
Abstract:
The Tourism Area of Southern Malang is administratively located in the Regency of Malang, East Java Province, Indonesia and geographically is in a position between 112o17' - 112o57' E dan 7o44' - 8o26' S. Southern Malang consists of several sub-districts that directly borders with the Indian Ocean, such as Donomulyo, Bantur, Gedangan, Sumbermanjing, Tirto Yudo, and Ampel Gading. This area has a high geotourism potential because of the existence of geodiversity such as beaches, waterfalls, caves, and karst area. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is still no systematic data that informs the geotourism potentials to the public. The aim of this research is to complete the lack of data and then arrange it systematically so it can be used for both tourism and research purposes. Research methods such as field observation, literature study, and depth interview to local people have been implemented. Aspects reviewed by visiting the field are accommodation, transportation, and the feasibility of a place to be geotourism object. The primary data was taken in Sumbermanjing, Gedangan, Bantur, and Donomulyo sub-district. A literature study is needed to determine the regional geology of Southern Malang and as a comparison to new data obtained in the field. The results of the literature study show that southern Malang consists of three formations: Wonosari Formation, Mandalaka Formation, and River-swamps Sediment Formation with the age range of Oligocene to Quaternary. Depth interviews have been conducted by involving local people with the aim of knowing cultural-history in the research area. From this research, the geotourism object distribution map has been made. The map also includes Geotrek and basic geological information of each object. The results of this research can support the development of geotourism in Southern Malang.
230
84058
Passing the Charity Walking Tours as a Poverty Reduction Establishment in Denpasar City, Bali
Abstract:
Poverty is one of the big problems faced by big cities in the world. Urbanization one cause, many rural communities trying to earn a living to the city in the hope that they can improve the level of economy, but not equipped with adequate skills so that it becomes an urban demographic problem. Denpasar as the capital of the province of Bali one of them, in the city area of Denpasar there are many slum dwellings inhabited by the poor, whereas Bali is known as one of the best tourist destinations in the world. This condition is very inversely proportional to the progress of tourism in Bali. For that it is necessary to attempt to overcome poverty in the city of Denpasar, one with the development of city tours in the form of charity walking tours, where tourists are invited to take a walk to see directly the state of the poor in the city of Denpasar and provide assistance to them in the form of home assistance, educational scholarships, health assistance, as well as skill and business capital assistance. This research is explorative-qualitative, that is exploring the potential of charity walking tour to overcome poverty in Denpasar City, which is written qualitatively. In the end based on potential data and information, then analyzed into a decision whether it is possible to develop. Therefore, this study only requires respondents or informants who are able to provide answers or qualitative information about matters related to the potential development of charity walking tour. Thus, informants in this study are tourism stakeholders, such as Municipal government officials, businessmen, community leaders and tourism actors, who are considered to be providing information relating to the development of urban tourism.
229
84471
Malaysian Consumers Perspective towards Unfair Contract Terms
Abstract:
A contract formally created binding upon parties affected by the terms and conditions stated. Concerns have been raised as to the terms that usually inserted and placed as unfair terms. Unfair terms particularly in the form of exemption clauses can also be found or printed in the receipts, invoices and other sale documents. These terms may operate extremely harshly against consumers because their rights may be limited or restricted or denied altogether. This paper specifically discusses the unfair contract term through several decided cases and by different grounds of claim. The research found that clauses excluding other forms of liability should be subjected to double barriers of reasonableness and fairness in order to be effective as consumers have grown more conscious of their rights and tend to resort more often to legal remedies provided by the consumer protection laws.
228
93434
Enhancing the Pricing Expertise of an Online Distribution Channel
Abstract:
Dynamic pricing is a revenue management strategy in which hotel suppliers define, over time, flexible and different prices for their services for different potential customers, considering the profile of e-consumers and the demand and market supply. This means that the fundamentals of dynamic pricing are based on economic theory (price elasticity of demand) and market segmentation. This study aims to define a dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the e-consumers profile in order to improve the number of reservations of an online distribution channel. Segmentation methods (hierarchical and non-hierarchical) were used to identify and validate an optimal number of market segments. A profile of the market segments was studied, considering the characteristics of the e-consumers and the probability of reservation a room. In addition, the price elasticity of demand was estimated for each segment using econometric models. Finally, predictive models were used to define rules for classifying new e-consumers into pre-defined segments. The empirical study illustrates how it is possible to improve the intelligence of an online distribution channel system through an optimal dynamic pricing strategy and a contextualized offer to the profile of each new e-consumer. A database of 11 million e-consumers of an online distribution channel was used in this study. The results suggest that an appropriate policy of market segmentation in using of online reservation systems is benefit for the service suppliers because it brings high probability of reservation and generates more profit than fixed pricing.
227
83814
A Study of Food Safety Perception of Undergraduate Students in Taiwan
Abstract:
Recently a number of food safety scandals have been on the news. In view of the fact that in Taiwan the majority of undergraduate college students reside in the dorms and dine out, the problem of restaurant sanitation is of utmost importance in their lives. The purpose of this study is to analyze students' dining habit and their perception of food safety. Four universities in the city of Tainan were randomly selected, and from each selected university a class was then chosen to receive 50 questionnaires. The total of 200 questionnaires yielded 144 usable returns. Students were asked to respond to questions, and each question was graded on a scale from 1 to 5 according to the importance. There were 32 questions ranging over various aspects: cleanliness of surroundings, washroom, food sanitation, serving temperature, kitchen sanitation, and service personnel cleanliness. It is found that the food sanitation received the highest score, while the service personnel ranked the lowest. An incidental finding is that the students tend to dine out in groups and as such their choice of restaurants are mostly dictated by consensus.
226
84893
Development of an Improved Paradigm for the Tourism Sector in the Department of Huila, Colombia: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach
Abstract:
The tourism importance for regional development is mainly highlighted by the collaborative, cooperating and competitive relationships of the involved agents. The fostering of associativity processes, in particular, the cluster approach emphasizes the beneficial outcomes from the concentration of enterprises, where innovation and entrepreneurship flourish and shape the dynamics for tourism empowerment. Considering the department of Huila, it is located in the south-west of Colombia and holds the biggest coffee production in the country, although it barely contributes to the national GDP. Hence, its economic development strategy is looking for more dynamism and Huila could be consolidated as a leading destination for cultural, ecological and heritage tourism, if at least the public policy making processes for the tourism management of La Tatacoa Desert, San Agustin Park and Bambuco’s National Festival, were implemented in a more efficient manner. In this order of ideas, this study attempts to address the potential restrictions and beneficial factors for the consolidation of the tourism sector of Huila-Colombia as a cluster and how could it impact its regional development. Therefore, a set of theoretical frameworks such as the Tourism Routes Approach, the Tourism Breeding Environment, the Community-based Tourism Method, among others, but also a collection of international experiences describing tourism clustering processes and most outstanding problematics, is analyzed to draw up learning points, structure of proceedings and success-driven factors to be contrasted with the local characteristics in Huila, as the region under study. This characterization involves primary and secondary information collection methods and comprises the South American and Colombian context together with the identification of involved actors and their roles, main interactions among them, major tourism products and their infrastructure, the visitors’ perspective on the situation and a recap of the related needs and benefits regarding the host community. Considering the umbrella concepts, the theoretical and the empirical approaches, and their comparison with the local specificities of the tourism sector in Huila, an array of shortcomings is analytically constructed and a series of guidelines are proposed as a way to overcome them and simultaneously, raise economic development and positively impact Huila’s well-being. This non-exhaustive bundle of guidelines is focused on fostering cooperating linkages in the actors’ network, dealing with Information and Communication Technologies’ innovations, reinforcing the supporting infrastructure, promoting the destinations considering the less known places as well, designing an information system enabling the tourism network to assess the situation based on reliable data, increasing competitiveness, developing participative public policy-making processes and empowering the host community about the touristic richness. According to this, cluster dynamics would drive the tourism sector to meet articulation and joint effort, then involved agents and local particularities would be adequately assisted to cope with the current changing environment of globalization and competition.
225
89430
Sentiment Analysis of Creative Tourism Experiences: The Case of Girona, Spain
Abstract:
Creative tourism involves the participation of tourists in the co-creation of their own experiences in a tourism destination. Consequently, creative tourists move from a passive behavior to an active behavior, and tourism destinations address this type of tourism by changing the scenario and making tourists learn and participate while they travel instead of merely offering tourism products and services to them. In creative tourism experiences, tourists are in close contact with locals and their culture. In destinations where culture (i.e. food, heritage, etc.) is the basis of their offer, such as Girona, Spain, tourism stakeholders must especially consider, analyze, and further foster the co-creation of authentic tourism experiences. They should focus on discovering more about these experiences, their main attributes, visitors’ opinions, etc. Creative tourists do not only participate while they travel around the world, but they also have and active post-travel behavior. They feel free to write about tourism experiences in different channels. User-generated content becomes crucial for any tourism destination when analyzing the market, making decisions, planning strategies, and when addressing issues, such as their reputation and performance. Sentiment analysis is a methodology used to automatically analyze semantic relationships and meanings in texts, so it is a way to extract tourists’ emotions and feelings. Tourists normally express their views and opinions regarding tourism products and services. They may express positive, neutral or negative feelings towards these products or services. For example, they may express anger, love, hate, sadness or joy towards tourism services and products. They may also express feelings through verbs, nouns, adverbs, adjectives, among others. Sentiment analysis may help tourism professionals in a range of areas, from marketing to customer service. For example, sentiment analysis allows tourism stakeholders to forecast tourism expenditure and tourist arrivals, or to analyze tourists’ profile. While there is an increasing presence of creativity in tourists’ experiences, there is also an increasing need to explore tourists’ expressions about these experiences. There is a need to know how they feel about participating in specific tourism activities. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze the meanings, emotions and feelings that tourists express about their creative experiences in Girona, Spain. To do so, sentiment analysis methodology is used. Results show the diversity of tourists who actively participate in tourism in Girona. Their opinions refer both to tangible aspects (e.g. food, museums, etc.) and to intangible aspects (e.g. friendliness, nightlife, etc.) of tourism experiences. Tourists express love, likeliness and other sentiments towards tourism products and services in Girona. This study can help tourism stakeholders in understanding tourists’ experiences and feelings. Consequently, they can offer more customized products and services and they can efficiently make them participate in the co-creation of their own tourism experiences.
224
94966
Outbound Tourism in Developed Countries: Analysis of the Trends, Behavior and the Transformation of the Moroccan Demand for International Travels
Abstract:
Outbound tourism in Morocco, as in the majority of developing countries, reveals some of the aspects of inequality between the north and the south. Considered by some researchers as one of the facets of the development crisis, access to tourism and especially international tourism is a chance for a small minority with financial means, while the vast portions of the population dream rather of immigrating to a developed country for the sake of improving their standard of living. The right to travel is also limited by visa requirements, procedures in host countries, security and technical measures and creates discrimination in the practice of tourism. These conditions do not seem to be favorable to the democratization of the practice of international tourism for the populations of the southern countries. This paper is a contribution to the reading of the trends of outbound tourism in developing countries through the example of Morocco. It highlights the different aspects of Moroccan outbound tourism, destinations and the behavior of tourists through an analysis of the offer of a sample of 50 travel agencies. In the same vein, it offers a reading grid of the possibilities offered for the development of outbound tourism and the various existing obstacles to the democratization of international outbound tourism in the southern countries. This reading reveals the transformation in the behavior of Moroccan international tourists as well as the profound changes in Moroccan society, through a model of statistical analysis.
223
82599
The Incorporation of Themes Related to Islandness in Tourism Branding among Cold-Water, Warm-Water, and Temperate-Water Islands
Abstract:
Islands have a long established allure for travellers the world over. From earliest accounts of human history, travellers were drawn by the sense of islandness embodied by these destinations. The concept of islandness describes the essence of what makes islands unique relative to non-islands and extends beyond geographic interpretations by attempting to capture the specific sense of self-exhibited by islanders in relation to their connection to place. The themes most strongly associated with islandness include a) a strong connection to water as both the life blood and a physical barrier, b) a unique culture and robust arts community that is deeply linked to both the island and islanders, c) an appreciation of and for nature, d) a rich sense of history and tradition connected to the place, e) a sense of community and belonging that arose through shared triumphs and struggles, and f) a profound awareness of independence, separateness, and uniqueness derived from both physical and social experience. The island brand, like all brands, is a marketing tactic designed to succinctly express a specific value proposition in simplistic ways which might include a brand symbol, logo, slogan, or representation meant to distinguish one brand from another. If a value proposition is the identification of attributes that separate one brand from another by highlighting the brand’s uniqueness, then presumably island brands may, at least in part, emphasize islandness as part of the destination brand. Yet it may in naïve to expect all islands to brand themselves using similar themes when islands can differ so substantially in terms of population, geography, political climate, economy, culture, and history. Of particular interest is the increased focus on tourism among 'cold-water' islands. This paper will examine the incorporation of themes related to islandness in tourism branding among cold-water, warm-water, and temperate-water islands. The tourism logos of 83 islands were collected and assessed for the use of themes related to islandness, namely water, arts and culture, nature, history and tradition, community and belongingness, and independence, separateness, and uniqueness. The ratings for each theme related to islandness for each of the 83 island destinations were then analyzed to identify if differences exist between cold-water, warm-water, and temperate-water islands. A general consensus of what constitutes 'cold-water' destinations is lacking, therefore a water temperature of 15C was adopted using the guidelines from the National Center for Cold Water Safety. Among these 83 islands, the average high and average low water temperatures of 196 specific locations, including the capital, northern, and southern most points of each island, was recorded to determine if the location was a cold-water (average high and low below 15C), warm-water (average high and low above 15C), or temperate-water (average high above 15C and low below 15C) location.
222
93782
Obstacles to Accessible Tourism for People with Mental, Physical and Mobility Disability in North Cyprus
Abstract:
Attending tourism in the current century is one of the key factors in the success of the tourism industry and, consequently, the prosperity of the economies of the countries. In this regard, accessible tourism can play a major role in the development of tourism, taking into account the attractions, facilities and capabilities of the development of tourism in Northern Cyprus, and given that the satisfaction of tourists from the product and destination of tourism has an undeniable role in attracting tourists. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental barriers and accessibility of the tourism industry in Northern Cyprus. Another goal of this study is to introduce this consumer group to the tourism community. In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, a questionnaire was designed and provided to three tourism professionals to assess the reliability, and then, among the 200 people with physical and mental disabilities who travelled to Cyprus, The data analysis was used as a confirmatory factor analysis method. The environmental barrier for tourists with disabilities is classified in three sections of transport, attractions and accommodation, each section being separately identified separately. In general, observance of the principles and standards of proper fitting in the main sectors of the tourism industry of Northern Cyprus in the situation The facilities and transportation were identified as the first problem and obstacle for the development of tourism for people with physical and mental disabilities and, finally, suggestions and solutions for the development of tourism for people with physical and physical disabilities were presented.
221
95135
Assessment of Tourist and Community Perception with Regard to Tourism Sustainability Indicators: A Case Study of Sinharaja World Heritage Rainforest, Sri Lanka
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine tourist and community perception-based sustainable tourism indicators as well as Human Pressure Index and Tourist Activity Index (TAI). The study was carried out in Sinharaja forest which is considered as one of the major eco-tourism destinations in Sri Lanka. Data was gathered using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire as well as records from Forest Department. Convenient sampling technique was applied. For the majority of issues, the responses were obtained on multi-point Likert scales. The visual portrayal was used for display analyzed data. The study revealed that the host community of the Kudawa gets many benefits from tourism. Also, tourism has caused negative impacts upon environment and community. The study further revealed the need for proper waste management and involvement of local cultural events for tourism business in Kudawa Conservation Center. Tourism activity index, which accounted to be 1.27 and monthly evolution of Human Pressure Index revealed that congestion can be occurred in the Sinharaja rainforest during peak season. The results provide useful information to any party who involve with tourism planning in anywhere, since such attempts would be more effective once the people’s perceptions of these aspects are taken into account.
220
91044
An Assessment of Experiential Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad Programs in Hospitality: A Learning Style Perspective
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of experiential learning on learning outcomes in hospitality education. This paper presents the results of an online survey of students from the U.S. studying abroad and their self-reported change in learning outcomes as assessed using the Core Competencies Model for the Hospitality Industry developed by Employment and Training Development Office of the U.S. Department of Labor. The impact of student learning styles on learning outcomes is also evaluated in this study. Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory Model was used to assess students’ learning style. The results show that students reported significant improvements in their learning outcomes because of engaging in study abroad experiential learning programs. The learning styles of the students had significant effect on one of core learning outcomes- personal effectiveness.
219
90875
Analysing the Impacts of Sustainable Tourism Development on Residents’ Well-Being Based on Stakeholder Perception: Evidence from a Coastal-Hinterland Region
Abstract:
Over-development for tourism and its consequences on residents’ well-being turn into a critical issue in tourism destinations. Learning about undesirable impacts of tourism has led many people to seek more sustainable and responsible tourism. The main objective of this research is to understand how and to what extent sustainable tourism development enhances locals’ well-being regarding stakeholder perception. The research was conducted in a coastal-hinterland tourism region through two sequential phases. At the first phase, a unique set of 19 sustainable tourism indicators resulted from a triplex model was used to examine the sustainability effects on the main factors of residents’ well-being including equity and living condition, life satisfaction, health condition, and education quality. The triplex model including i) systematic literature search, ii) convergent interviewing, and iii) DEMATEL aimed to develop sustainability indicators, specify them for a particular destination, and identify the dominant sustainability issues acting as key predictors in sustainable development. At the second phase, a hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between sustainable development and local residents’ well-being. A number of 167 participants from five different groups of stakeholders perceived the importance level of each sustainability indicators regarding well-being factors on 5-point Likert scale. Results from the first phase indicated that sustainability training, government support, tourism sociocultural effects, tourism revenue, and climate change are the top dominant sustainability issues in the regional sustainable development. Results from the second phase showed that sustainable development considerably improves the overall residents’ well-being and has positive relationships with all well-being factors except life satisfaction. It explains that it was difficult for stakeholders to recognize a link between sustainable development and their overall life satisfaction and happiness. Among well-being’s factors, health condition was influenced the most by sustainability indicators that indicate stakeholders believed sustainability development can promote public health, health sector performance, quality of drinking water, and sanitation. For the future research, it is highly recommended to analysis the effects of sustainable tourism development on the other features of a tourism destination’s well-being including residents sociocultural empowerment, local economic growth, and attractiveness of the destination.
218
86710
Agri-Tourism as a Sustainable Adaptation Option for Climate Change Impacts on Small Scale Agricultural Sector
Abstract:
The global climate change has become one of the imperative issues for the smallholder dominated agricultural sector and nature based tourism sector in Sri Lanka. Thus addressing this issue is notably important. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of agri-tourism as a sustainable adaptation option to mitigate some of the negative impacts of climate change in small scale agricultural sector in Sri Lanka. The study was carried out in two different climatic zones in Sri Lanka namely Low Country Dry Zone and Up Country Wet Zone. A case study strategy followed by structured and unstructured interviewers through cross-sectional surveys were adapted to collect data. The study revealed that there had been a significant change in the climate in regard to the rainfall patterns in both climatic zones resulting unexpected rains during months and longer drought periods. This results the damages of agricultural production, low yields and subsequently low income. However, to mitigate these adverse effects, farmers have mainly focused on using strategies related to the crops and farming patterns rather than diversifying their business by adopting other entrepreneurial activities like agri-tourism. One of the major precursor for this was due to lesser awareness on the concept of agri-tourism within the farming community. The study revealed that the respondents of both climatic zones do have willingness and potential to adopt agri-tourism. One key important factor identified was that farming or agriculture was the main livelihood of the respondents, which is one of the vital precursor needed to start up an agri-tourism enterprise. Most of the farmers in the Up Country Wet Zone had an inclination to start a farm guest house or a farm home stay whereas the farmers in the Low Country Dry Zone wish to operate farm guest house, farm home stay or farm restaurant. They also have an interest to open up a road side farm product stall to facilitate the direct sales of the farm. Majority of the farmers in both climatic zones showed an interest to initiate an agri-tourism business as a complementary enterprise where they wished to give an equal share to both farming and agri-tourism. Thus this revealed that the farmers have identified agri-tourism as a vital concept and have given the equal importance as given to farming. This shows that most of the farmers have understood agri-tourism as an alternative income source that can mitigate the adverse effects of climatic change. This study emphasizes that agri-tourism as an alternative income source that can mitigate the adverse effects of climatic change on small scale agriculture sector.
217
90885
Examining the Effects of National Disaster on the Performance of Hospitality Industry in Korea
Abstract:
The outbreak of national disasters stimulates the decrease of the both internal and domestic tourism demands, causing bad effects on the hospitality industry. The effective and efficient risk management regarding national disasters are being increasingly required from the hospitality industry practitioners and the tourism policymakers. To establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy on national disasters, the most essential prerequisite condition is the correct estimation of national disasters’ effects in terms of the size and duration of the damages occurred from national disaster on hospitality industry. More specifically, the national disasters are twofold: natural disaster and social disaster. In addition, the hospitality industry has consisted of several types of business, such as hotel, restaurant, travel agency, etc. As reasons of the above, it is important to consider how each type of national disasters differently influences on the performance of each type of hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is examining the effects of national disaster on hospitality industry in Korea based on the types of national disasters as well as the types of hospitality business. The monthly data was collected from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2016. The indexes of industrial production for each hospitality industry in Korea were used with the proxy variable for the performance of each hospitality industry. Two national disaster variables (natural disaster and social disaster) were treated as dummy variables. In addition, the exchange rate, industrial production index, and consumer price index were used as control variables in the research model. The impulse response analysis was used to examine the size and duration of the damages occurred from each type of national disaster on each type of hospitality industries. The results of this study show that the natural disaster and the social disaster differently influenced on each type of hospitality industry. More specifically, the performance of airline industry is negatively influenced by the natural disaster at the time of 3 months later from the incidence. However, the negative impacts of social disaster on airline industry occurred not significantly over the time periods. For the hotel industry, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of hotel industry at the time of 5 months and 6 months later, respectively. Also, the negative impact of natural disaster on the performance of restaurant industry occurred at the time of 5 months later, as well as for both 3 months and 6 months later for the social disaster. Finally, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of travel agency at the time of 3 months and 4 months later, respectively. In conclusion, the types of national disasters differently influence the performance of each type of hospitality industry in Korea. These results would provide an important information to establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy for the national disasters.
216
82323
Analyzing the Sensation of Jogja Kembali Monument (Monjali): Case Study of Yogyakarta as the Implementation of Attraction Tour
Abstract:
Yogyakarta Kembali Monument (Monjali) is one of the most popular tourist attraction in Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is known as ‘Student City’, and Monjali is a right place to learn and explore more about Yogyakarta, especially for students in elementary and junior high school to do the study tour. Monjali is located in North Ringroad, Jongkang, Sariharjo village, Ngaglik Subdistrict, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. Monjali offers many historical replicas, and also the story behind them. That is about the war between Indonesia's fighter, called TNI (Indonesian national army) and the colonizer of Netherlands in Yogyakarta, on March, 1st 1949. That event could open the eyes of the whole of Indonesia, because at that time the TNI was placed by the invaders. This research is an effort to evaluate the visitor's interest in Monjali as a special tourist attraction. The substance that we use in this research is the Monjali's visitors whom up to 17 years old by taking a respondent in every 15 persons who visit Monjali, and we need 200 respondents to know the condition and facilities of Monjali. This research has been collected since January 2017 until October 2017. We do the interview and spread the questionnaire which has been tested all of its validity and reliability. This data analysis is descriptive statistic analysis by using the qualitative data, which is converted into the quantitative data, use the Linkert Scale. The result of this research shows that the interest of Monjali's visitors is higher 75,6%. Based on the result, we know that Monjali is being an attractiveness for people which always experience its improvements and the development. Monjali is the success to be a place which combines the entertainment with its education as a vision of Yogyakarta as a Student City.
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Winery Owners’ Perceptions of Social Media in Promoting Wine Tourism: Case Study of Langhe, Italy
Abstract:
Over the past decade Langhe has developed as a wine tourism destination and has become increasingly popular on an international basis. Wine tourism has been recognized as an important business driver for wineries in Langhe and wine owners have taken advantage of this opportunity through developing a variety of tourism-related activities at their wineries, notably winery visits, wine tastings, cellar-door sales, B&Bs and/or restaurants. In order to promote these tourism-related activities and attract an increasing number of wine tourists, wineries have started to engage in social media. While tourism scholars are now well aware of the benefits social media provides to both travellers and service providers, the existing literature on social media from supplier’s perspective remains limited. Accordingly, this paper aims to fill this gap through providing new insights into how service providers, that is winery owners, exploit social media to promote tourism online. The paper explores the importance and the role of social media as part of wineries’ marketing strategies to promote wine tourism online. The focus lies on understanding, which motives drive winery owners to activate and implement social media activities in promoting wine tourism. A case study approach is adopted, using the North Italian wine region of Langhe in Piedmont. Empirical evidence is provided by a sample of 28 winery owners. An interpretivist approach to research is adopted in order to extend current understandings of social media within the context of wine tourism. In line with the interpretivist perspective, this paper uses discourse analysis (DA) as a methodological approach for analyzing and interpreting winery owners’ accounts. Three key findings emerge from this research. First, there is a general understanding among winery owners what social media represents an opportunity in promoting wine tourism – if not even a must have. Second, the majority of interviewed winery owners are currently applying to some extent social media to promote wine tourism online as well as to interact and engage with tourists directly. Lastly, a varying degree of usage of social media amongst wineries is identified, with some wineries not recognizing social media as a crucial tool in marketing communication strategies. On the other extent, some commonalities in strategies and platforms chosen can be detected by these wineries that actively participate in social media. In conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is that it extends current understandings of social media in the wine tourism context by offering valuable insights into how service providers perceive and engage in social media.
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88113
The Extension of the Kano Model by the Concept of Over-Service
Abstract:
It is common practice for many companies to ask employees to provide heart-touching service for customers and to emphasize the attitude of 'customer first'. However, services may not necessarily gain praise, and may actually be considered excessive, if customers do not appreciate such behaviors. In reality, many restaurant businesses try to provide as much service as possible without taking into account whether over-provision may lead to negative customer reception. A survey of 894 people in Britain revealed that 49 percent of respondents consider over-attentive waiters the most annoying aspect of dining out. It can be seen that merely aiming to exceed customers’ expectations without actually addressing their needs, only further distances and dissociates the standard of services from the goals of customer satisfaction itself. Over-service is defined, as 'service provided that exceeds customer expectations, or simply that customers deemed redundant, resulting in negative perception'. It was found that customers’ reactions and complaints concerning over-service are not as intense as those against service failures caused by the inability to meet expectations; consequently, it is more difficult for managers to become aware of the existence of over-service. Thus the ability to manage over-service behaviors is a significant topic for consideration. The Kano model classifies customer preferences into five categories: attractive quality attribute, one-dimensional quality attribute, must-be quality attribute, indifferent quality attribute and reverse quality attributes. The model is still very popular for researchers to explore the quality aspects and customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, several studies indicated that Kano’s model could not fully capture the nature of service quality. The concept of over-service can be used to restructure the model and provide a better understanding of the service quality construct. In this research, the structure of Kano's two-dimensional questionnaire will be used to classify the factors into different dimensions. The same questions will be used in the second questionnaire for identifying the over-service experienced of the respondents. The finding of these two questionnaires will be used to analyze the relevance between service quality classification and over-service behaviors. The subjects of this research are customers of fine dining chain restaurants. Three hundred questionnaires will be issued based on the stratified random sampling method. Items for measurement will be derived from DINESERV scale. The tangible dimension of the questionnaire will be eliminated due to this research is focused on the employee behaviors. Quality attributes of the Kano model are often regarded as an instrument for improving customer satisfaction. The concept of over-service can be used to restructure the model and provide a better understanding of service quality construct. The extension of the Kano model will not only develop a better understanding of customer needs and expectations but also enhance the management of service quality.
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88437
Harmonising Ecology, Emotions and Economy: Case Study of Govardhan Ecovillage
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Abstract:
People in cities have prosperity but there is immense pollution, chaos in the mind, anxiety and turbulence. People in the villages experience pristine pure environment but they also experience poverty. There is a need to find out ways by which the cities and the villages can complement each other through their strengths and take care of each other’s weaknesses. In order to do this, the case study of Govardhan Ecovillage has been explored in this paper. All its environment, social and economic initiatives along with eco-tourism and wellness features are being analyzed. The analysis shows that Govardhan Ecovillage is successfully able to harmonize its different initiatives and provide a package which has created a win-win solution for the city people and also the villagers. Such kind of Eco-tourism initiatives should be supported and replicated in other places in the world to benefit everyone.
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A Study of Effective Event Development and the Sustainability of Tourism Industry in Lagos State, Nigeria
Abstract:
This research examined effective event development on the sustainability of tourism in Lagos State. The objectives were to ascertain the implication of effective event development on cost, environmental innovations, opportunity for participants, job creation and working conditions. Also, there was a focus on employee participation and the sustainability of the tourism industry. However, the primary data were obtained via the use of structured questionnaire administered to the selected respondents. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents, using the Yaro Yame formula. The formulated hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Non-parametric chi-square. From the tests conducted, the results showed that effective event development has helped to reduce costs, bring about environmental innovations, offer unique opportunity among event participants, create jobs and promote better working conditions, and the influence it has on employee participation affects the sustainability of the tourism industry. Based on these results, it was concluded that effective event development helps to achieve sustainability in the tourism industry by reducing costs, ensuring efficient use of tourism resources and offers a unique opportunity among event participants. It was, therefore, recommended that events should be developed in such a way that it can help to reduce cost and help leverage the financial burdens of participants and stakeholders, thereby, achieving sustainability in the tourism industry.
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84233
Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh Rituals as Creative Cultural Product in Tourism; Case Study: Isfahan, Iran
Abstract:
Nowadays intangible heritage as a creative product plays an important role in promoting tourism. The intangible heritage is transmitted from past generation to the present and future generation and constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, nature and history. In recent decade, intangible heritage especially Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh rituals as creative cultural product attract many tourists to a destination and they well-known as tourist attractions in Iran. The study was conducted in Isfahan city. This research has two major purposes: 1) to introduce Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual as tourist attraction and, 2) to investigate the attitude of domestic tourists towards Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual in Isfahan city. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be concluded that the domestic tourists are interested in gaining experience and increasing their knowledge in Pahlevāni and Zoorkhāneh ritual.
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88976
Bee Keeping for Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation: A Success Story for Sustainable Tourism in Kibale National Park, Western Uganda
Abstract:
The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) remains one of the most crop-damaging species around Kibale National Park, western Uganda. Elephant crop raiding deprives communities of food and incomes, consequently impacting livelihoods, attitude, and support for conservation. It also attracts an aggressive reaction from local communities including the retaliatory killing of a species that is already endangered and listed under Appendix I of the Convention on Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES). In order to mitigate against elephant crop raiding and minimize conflict, a number of interventions were devised by the government of Uganda such as physical guarding, scare-shooting, excavation of trenches, growing of unpalatable crops and fire lighting all of which have over the years been implemented around the park. These generated varying degrees of effectiveness but largely never solved the problem of elephants crossing into communities to destroy food and shelter which had a negative effect onto sustainable tourism of the communities who often resorted to killing these animals and hence contributing the falling numbers of these animals. It was until government discovered that there are far more effective ways of deterring these animals from crossing to communities that it commissioned a study to deploy the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) as a deterrent against elephant crop raiding and income enhancement for local people around the park. These efforts led to a number of projects around Kibale National Park where communities were facilitated to keep bees for human-elephant conflict mitigation and rural income enhancement through the sale of honey. These projects have registered tremendous success in reducing crop damage, enhance rural incomes, influence positive attitude change and ultimately secure community support for elephant and park conservation which is a clear manifestation of sustainable tourism development in the area. To address the issue of sustainability, the project was aligned with four major objectives that contributed to the overall goal of maintaining the areas around the parks and the national park itself in such a manner that it remains viable over an infinite period. Among these included determining deterrence effects of bees against elephant crop raiding, assessing the contribution of beekeeping towards rural income enhancement, determining the impact of community involvement of park conservation and management among others. The project deployed 500 improved hives by placing them at specific and previously identified and mapped out elephant crossing points along the park boundary. A control site was established without any intervention to facilitate comparison of findings and data was collected on elephant raiding frequency, patterns, honey harvested, and community attitude towards the park. A socio-economic assessment was also undertaken to ascertain the contribution of beekeeping to incomes and attitude change. In conclusion, human-wildlife conflicts have disturbed conservation and sustainable tourism development efforts. Such success stories like the beekeeping strategy should hence be extensively discussed and widely shared as a conservation technique for sustainable tourism.
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89503
The Political Economy of Conservation at Bhitarkanika Wild Life Sanctuary, India: Conflicts, Sustainability, and Development
Abstract:
This paper posits the attempt of conservation and the idea of protected areas from the Marxian primitive accumulation to the politics of sustainability. Using field survey data and secondary literature, this paper analyses an Indian wildlife sanctuary, the Bhitarkanika, Odisha and finds how the hegemony of power among different management regimes attempted for conservation and the present protected area management regime attempted to imbibe the policy of ecotourism for achieving sustainability. The paper contends that the current policy of ecotourism in protected areas acts as a veil for the local deprived people, to avoid many legal conflicts like property rights, livelihood, and man-wildlife issues. Moreover, opening the scope to accumulate on the part of tour operators, the policy of ecotourism establishes a nexus between the profit holders/tour operators (the capitalists) and the power hegemony on the part of management authorities. The sustainability attempt of ecotourism may lead to private benefits maximising the profit accumulation and can expand and continue, showing the bulk of employment generation of local people at petty odd jobs, grabbing a lion share! Positing ecotourism as a capitalist project as against the general assumption of one of the drivers of sustainable development, the paper shows that ecotourism in practice may end up ruining the very social-environmental set up, leading to unsustainability related to waste management, equality, culture, relationship and above all polarised private accumulators in absence of sound mechanism. The paper ends with the caveat that while shopping for neoliberal conservation, the conservators found ecotourism as a product without finalising the hallmark of mechanism/ institutions with appropriate modus operandii to check/guard the quality assurance/standard of ecotourism for sustainability. The paper proposes sound structural and institutional mechanism of ecotourism to be developed to harness sustainability in the local economy as well as in conservation.
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Impact of Storytelling for Effective Marketing and Reputation Management of Heritage Tourism Destination with Special Reference to Haflong (Assam, India)
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Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to prove the impact of storytelling for effective marketing and maintaining the reputation of the destination for long run. This notable aspect of heritage tourism is cultural exchange among the various communities who visit our country India. Every destination has a life cycle like the product known as destination life cycle. India is considered to be the hub of cultural heritage tourism; its cultural heritage tourism can be traced back to several centuries. Heritage tourism has gained the popularity of global cuisine activity. The statistics of 2014 reveals 903 million International Tourist in heritage tourism destination is done to know the impact of storytelling for their visit to particulars heritage tourism destination. SWOT analysis of the destination is undertaken for the research purpose. A collection of data from the travel agency was taken who visited the heritage tourism destination and were asked to fill questionnaire for the research purpose to know the impact of storytelling for their visit to destination. A total of 100 respondents filled the questionnaire. Likert scale was used in the paper also highlighted the scope, advantage and disadvantage of storytelling for effective marketing and reputation management.
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90030
Comparison of Tourist Shopping Patterns in Korea, 2009-2015: A Case of China and Japan
Abstract:
Japan has been positioned as a major inbound market to Korea, accounting for about 31% of total inbound visitors until 2012. The percentage has sharply dropped each year since and remained in second place, reaching 13.33% in 2016. Meanwhile, China has been boosted as a major inbound market, reaching 46.79% in 2016. Chinese tourists mainly visit Korea with the major purpose of shopping. They consume Korean cosmetic/beauty products and clothes while Japanese tourists prefer to purchase healthy food such as ginseng and seaweed. This study aims to investigate and compare tourist shopping patterns across two major inbound markets, China and Japan. A quantitative approach using survey was applied from 2009 to 2016. Findings suggest Chinese visit Korea due to quality of product, value for money, and accessibility, and trust. Meanwhile, Japanese choose Korea as a shopping destination mainly due to convenience, affordability, and tourist attractions. Also, there were significant differences in shopping venues. For example, Japanese tourists prefer shopping at department stores while Chinese tourists prefer retail outlets and local markets. This study contributes to deeper understanding on two major inbound markets to Korea and suggests future marketing strategies.