International Science Index


Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran

Abstract:Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.
[1] Alipour S (2006). Hydrogeochemistry of seasonal variation of USL, Iran. Saline Systems. 2-9.
[2] Bianchi TS, Mitra S, McKee BA (2002). Sources of terrestrially derived organic carbon in lower Mississippi River sediments: implications for differential sedimentation and transport at the coastal margin. Mar Chem. 77: 211–223.
[3] Last WM and Smol JP (2001). Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. The Netherlands.
[4] Jin ZD, Wang S, Shen J, Wang Y (2003). Carbonate versus silicate Sr isotope in Lake sediments and its response to the Little Ice Age Chin. Sci Bull. 48: 95–100.
[5] Laird KR, Cumming BF, Wunsam S, Rusak JA, Oglesby RJ, Fritz SC, Leavitt PR (2003). Lake sediments record large-scales hifts in moisture regimes across the northern prairies of North America during the past two millennia. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 100: 2483–2488.
[6] Rose, N.L., Boyle, J.F., Du, Y., Yi, C., Dai, X., Appleby, P.G., Bennion, H., Cai, S., Yu, L., 2004.Sedimentary evidence for changes in the pollution status of Taihu in the Jiangsu region of eastern China. J. Paleolimnol. 32, 41–51.
[7] Taylor, S.R., McLennan, S.M., 1985.The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Blackwell, London.
[8] Knappe A, Mo ller P, Dulski P, Pekdeger A (2005). Positive gadolinium anomaly in surface water and ground water of the urban area Berlin. Germany. 65: 167-189.
[9] Dupre B, Gaillardet J, Rousseau D, Allegre C (1995). Major and trace elements of river-borne material. The Congo Basin. 60: 1301-1321.
[10] Elderfield H, Upstill-Goddard R, Sholkovitz E (1990). The rare erath elements in rivers, estuaries and coastal seas and their significance the composition of ocean water. 54: 971-991.
[11] Moayyed M, Moazzen M, Calagari AA, Jahangiri A, Modjarrad M (2008). Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lamprophyric dykes and the associated rocks from Eslamy peninsula, NW Iran: Implications for deep-mantle metasomatism. Chemie der erde. 68: 141-154.
[12] Fralick and kronbergi, 1997, Geochimical discrimination of elastic sedimentary rock sources, sediment. Geol. 113: 111-124.
[13] Geological survey of Iran (GSI), 1:100000 national geochemical maps. (Adjabshir, 2005; Azarshahr, 2002; Marand, 1994; Oshnavieh, 1985, Tasodj, 1993; Urmia, 2006).
[14] Hoseyni A (2012). Mineralogical and Geochemistry of SW corner of USL, M.SC thesis, Urmia university.
[15] Haseli Z (2014). Mineralogical and Geochemistry of SE corner of USL. M.SC thesis. Urmia university.
[16] Nelson, S.A., 2006," Clay minerals", Earth Materials, 211pp.
[17] Sinha, R., Raymahashay, B., 2004. Evaporite mineralogy and geochemical evolution of the Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan, India. Sedimentary Geology. 166, 59-71.
[18] Le Maitre R W, Streckeisen A, Zanettin B, Le Bas M J, Bonin B, Bateman P, Bellieni G, Dudek A, Efremova S, Keller J, Lamere J, Sabine PA, Schmid R, Sorensen H, Wool A R (2002). Igneous rocks. A Classification and Glossary of Terms, in: Recommendation of the International Union of Geological Science Subcommission on the systematics of Igneous rocks. 2nd Edn., Cambridge University Press. 254 pp.
[19] Nesbitt, H. W. and Young, G. M.,1989. Formation and diagenesis of weathering profiles. J. Geol. 97, 129–147.
[20] Nesbitt, H. W. and Young, G. M.,1996. Petrogenesis of sediments in the absence of chemical weathering: effects of abrasion and sorting on bulk composition and mineralogy. Sedimentology. 43, 341–358.
[21] Gromet, L. P., Dymek, R. F., Haskin, L. A. and Korotev, R. L. (1984) The ‘North American Shale Composite’: its compilation, major and trace element char-acteristics. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta48, 2469–2482.
[22] Condie KC (1993). Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting results from surface samples and shales. Chemical Geology. 104: 1-37.
[23] Roser B. P., Korsch R. J., 1988.Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined using discriminant function analysis sis of major-element data. Chem. Geol. 67, 119–139.
[24] McLennan S M, Hemming S, McDaniel DK, Hanson GN (1993). Geochemical approaches to sedimentation, provenance, and tectonics. Processes Controlling the Composition of Clastic Sediments (Johnson, M. J. and Basu, A., eds.). Geological Society of America. 284: 21–40.
[25] Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E., Siever, R., 1972. Sand and Sandstone. Springer-Verlag, New York.
[26] Herron MM (1988). Geochemical classification of terrigenous sand and shales from core or log data. J. Sediment. Petrol. 58: 820–829.
[27] Defant MJ, Drummond MS (1990). Derivation of some modern arc magmas by melting of young subducted. Lithosphere Nature. 367: 662–665.
[28] Goldstein S, Jacobsen J (1988). Rare earth elements in river waters. Sci Lett. 89: 35-47.
[29] Chen J, An Z, Head J (1999). Variation of Rb/Sr ratios in the loess paleosol sequences of central China during the last 130,000 year sand their implications for monsoon paleoclimatology. Quat. 51: 215–219.
[30] Yan Zeng, Jingan Chen, Jule Xiao, Liang Qi (2013). Non-residual Sr of the sediments in Daihai Lake as a good indicator of chemical weathering. Quaternary Research.79: 284–291.
[31] Ohta, A., Kawabe, I., 2001.REE (III) adsorption onto Mn dioxide (δ-MnO2) and Feoxyhydroxide: Ce (III) oxidation byδ-MnO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. 65 (5),695–703.
[32] Coppin F, Berger G, Bauer A, Caste S,Lou bet M (2002) .Sorption of lanthanides onspectate and kaolinite. Chem Geol. 182: 57–68.
[33] Haley BA, Klink hammer GP, McManus J (2004). Rare earth elements in pore waters of marine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim. 68: 1265–1279.