Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.
The main question of the research is - how did the Kazakhs manage to keep their religious thinking in the period of active propaganda of Soviet atheism, for seventy years of struggle against religion with the involvement of the scientific worldview as the primary means of proving the absence of the divine nature and materiality of the world?
Our hypothesis is that In case of Kazakhstan the conservative female religious consciousness seems to have been a factor that helped to preserve the “everyday” religiousness of Kazakhs, which was far from deep theological contents of Islam, but able to revive in a short time after the decennia of proclaimed atheism.
The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.
Shear testing is one of the most complex testing areas where available methods and specimen geometries are different from each other. Therefore, a modified shear test specimen (MSTS) combining the simple uniaxial test with a zone of interest (ZOI) is tested which gives almost the pure shear. In this study, material parameters of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are first measured by tensile tests with a dogbone shaped specimen. These parameters are then used as an input for the finite element analysis. Secondly, a specially designed specimen (MSTS) is used to perform the shear stress tests in a tensile testing machine to get the results in terms of forces and extension, crack initiation etc. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is also performed on the shear fracture surface to find material behavior. These experiments are then simulated by finite element method and compared with the experimental results in order to confirm the simulation model. Shear stress state is inspected to find the usability of the proposed shear specimen. Finally, a geometry correction factor can be established for these two materials in this specific loading and geometry with notch using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). By these results, strain energy of shear failure and stress intensity factor (SIF) of shear of these two polymers are discussed in the special application of the screw cap opening of the medical or food packages with a temper evidence safety solution.
The concept of national security in Iran is a permanently effective factor in acceptance or rejection of many international obligations. These obligations had been defined according to the type of legislation of Iran in many aspects. Therefore, there are several treaties at international level which requires Iran’s security to come in contact with obligations in these treaties in a way that an obstacle to join to them and their passage in parliament. This issue is a typical category which every country pays attention to be accepted in treaties or to include their national security in that treaties and also they can see the related treaties from this perspective, but this issue that 'what is the concept of Iran’s national security', and 'To what extent it is changed in recent years, especially after Islamic Revolution' are important issues that can be criticized. Thus, this study is trying to assess singed treaties from the perspective of Iran’s national security according of the true meaning of treaty and to investigate how the international treaties may be in conflict with Iran’s national security.
The purpose of this paper is to examine co-creation of non-economic values in Islamic banking services and their significance for service science by comparing Islamic and conventional banking services. Although many scholars have discussed co-creation of values in services, most of them have focused on only economic values.
Following Sharia (Islamic principles that are based on Qur’an and Sunnah) traditions, Islamic banking is more concerned with such non-economic values as well-being, partnership, fairness, trust, and justice, than such economic values as money in terms of interest. Therefore, it may be more sustainable and suitable for today’s unpredictable socio-economic environments.
We also argue that Islamic banking is essentially a value co-creation business model that fits better with the so-called Service-Dominant Logic (SDL) than conventional banking. This paper explores a new frontier of value co-creation in services, thereby contributing to further development of service science.
This study this is considering Boria as a conventional performance in Malaysia. Boria is a folk performance unique to Penang. This theatre style reached Penang in the mid-19th century and is believed to be derived from the Shia Islamic Passion play performed during the Muslim month of Muharram to commemorate the martyrs of Kerbela. These days in Malaysia (especially Penang) Boria mentions to a choral street performance performed annually by a number of groups composed mostly of Sunni Malaysian. Boria are performed for entertainment and often include an annual singing competition. The size, membership, themes and movements of each Boria troupe may vary from year to year. Similarly, the themes and contents of the Boria performed by the different troupes also changes each year and can have a comical, political or satirical notion. It is common to most groups during the first ten days of Muharram Boria generally is done.
In this paper a novel ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antenna with band notch characteristics for world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is proposed. The designed antenna consists of a rectangular radiating patch and a ground plane with tapered shape slot. To realize a notch band, a curved parasitic element has been etched out along with the radiating patch. It is observed that by adjusting the length, thickness and position of the parasitic element, the proposed antenna can achieved an impedance bandwidth of 8.01GHz (2.84 to 10.85GHz) with a notched band of 3.28-3.85GHz. Compared to the recently reported band notch antennas, the proposed antenna has a simple configuration to realize band notch characteristics in order to mitigate the potential interference between WiMAX and UWB system. Furthermore, a stable radiation pattern and moderate gain except at the notched band makes the proposed antenna suitable for various UWB applications.
The psychological well-being of a family is a subjective matter for evaluation, all the more when it involves the element of religions, whether Islam, Christianity, Buddhism or Hinduism. Each of these religions emphasises similar values and morals on family psychological well-being. This comparative study is specifically to determine the role of religion on family psychological well-being in Pekan district, Pahang, Malaysia. The study adopts a quantitative and qualitative mixed method design and considers a total of 412 samples of parents and children for the quantitative study, and 21 samples for the qualitative study. The quantitative study uses simple random sampling, whereas the qualitative sampling is purposive. The instrument for quantitative study is Ryff’s Psychological Well-being Scale and the qualitative study involves the construction of a guidelines protocol for in-depth interviews of respondents. The quantitative study uses the SPSS version .19 with One Way Anova, and the qualitative analysis is manual based on transcripts with specific codes and themes. The results show nonsignificance, that is, no significant difference among religions in all family psychological well-being constructs in the comparison of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism and Hinduism, thereby accepting a null hypothesis and rejecting an alternative hypothesis. The qualitative study supports the quantitative study, that is, all 21 respondents explain that no difference exists in psychological wellbeing in the comparison of teachings in all the religious mentioned. These implications may be used as guidelines for government and non-government bodies in considering religion as an important element in family psychological well-being in the long run.
This research contribution is drafted to present the orbit design, orbit propagator and geomagnetic field estimator for the nanosatellites specifically for the upcoming CUBESAT, ICUBE-1 of the Institute of Space Technology (IST), Islamabad, Pakistan. The ICUBE mission is designed for the low earth orbit at the approximate height of 700KM. The presented research endeavor designs the Keplarian elements for ICUBE-1 orbit while incorporating the mission requirements and propagates the orbit using J2 perturbations, The attitude determination system of the ICUBE-1 consists of attitude determination sensors like magnetometer and sun sensor. The Geomagnetic field estimator is developed according to the model of International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for comparing the magnetic field measurements by the magnetometer for attitude determination. The output of the propagator namely the Keplarians position and velocity vectors and the magnetic field vectors are compared and verified with the same scenario generated in the Satellite Tool Kit (STK).
In conducting a case study to analyze the status-quo of the extremists’ dominance in Egypt, the author of this paper uses qualitative research method to analyze the evolution of extreme Islamist groups in Egypt. In conducting this qualitative research, the author of this paper intends to use several lenses to understand the rise and the evolution of the hegemony of extremist groups, such as the Muslim Brotherhood and other groups in Egypt. Therefore, unless he intends to show an important nexus between the Egyptian groups and their sister-groups in other countries, he will intentionally exclude analyzing extreme Islamism of non-Egyptian origins. This case study relies on the moral disengagement theory to shed light on the ideological evolution of extremism in Egypt. The goal of this case study is to help in understanding extreme-Islamism adverse to the mainstream Islam; therefore, understanding the concept here should help in preventing similar groups from threatening the international community.
Stiffness of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in flexible pavement is largely dependent of temperature, mode of testing and age of pavement. Accurate measurement of HMA stiffness is thus quite challenging. This study determines HMA stiffness based on Finite Element Model (FEM) and validates the results using field data. As a first step, stiffnesses of different layers of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40) in New Mexico were determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Pavement temperature was not measured at that time due to lack of temperature probe. Secondly, a FE model is developed in ABAQUS. Stiffness of the base, subbase and subgrade were taken from the FWD test output obtained from the first step. As HMA stiffness largely varies with temperature it was assigned trial and error approach. Thirdly, horizontal strain and vertical stress at the bottom of the HMA and temperature at different depths of the pavement were measured with installed sensors on the whole day on December 25th, 2012. Fourthly, outputs of FEM were correlated with measured stress-strain responses. After a number of trials a relationship was developed between the trial stiffness of HMA and measured mid-depth HMA temperature. At last, the obtained relationship between stiffness and temperature is verified by further FWD test when pavement temperature was recorded. A promising agreement between them is observed. Therefore, conclusion can be drawn that linear elastic FEM can accurately predict the stiffness and the structural response of flexible pavement.
This study aims to investigate the emergence of the thought of Islamic literature in the development of modern Malay literature in Malaysia. It examines the views, approaches and theories discussed and argued by literary scholars. Further, this study investigates the influence of the thought of Islamic literature on the development of modern Malay literature in Malaysia by examining the emergence of prominent scholars and bodies that organized competitions for writing Islamic literary works. Findings reveal that in the 70’s, the movement began to be accepted by the literary society. Government bodies played an important role in creating and disseminating the Islamic literary works.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the faculties of Islamic Azad University of Zahedan Branch based on two-component (teaching and research) decision making units (DMUs) in data envelopment analysis (DEA). Nowadays it is obvious that most of the systems as DMUs do not act as a simple inputoutput structure. Instead, if they have been studied more delicately, they include network structure. University is such a network in which different sections i.e. teaching, research, students and office work as a parallel structure. They consume some inputs of university commonly and some others individually. Then, they produce both dependent and independent outputs. These DMUs are called two-component DMUs with network structure. In this paper, performance of the faculties of Zahedan branch is calculated by using relative efficiency model and also, a formula to compute relative efficiencies teaching and research components based on DEA are offered.
This study evaluates the back calculation of stiffness of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40)in New Mexico through numerical analysis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test has been conducted on a section on I-40. Layer stiffness of the pavement has been backcalculated by a backcalculation software, ELMOD, using the FWD test data. Commercial finite element software, ABAQUS, has been used to develop the Finite Element Model (FEM) of this pavement section. Geometry and layer thickness are collected from field coring. Input parameters i.e. stiffnesses of different layers of the pavement are used as the backcalculated ones. Resulting surface deflections at different radial distances from the FEM analysis are compared with field FWD deflection values. It shows close agreement between the FEM and FWD outputs. Therefore, the FWD test method can be considered to be a reliable test procedure for evaluating the in situ stiffness of pavement material.
According to historical legend, after the revelation of the holy Qur'an, which gave the hijab compulsory and women were required to cover the head and body with a handkerchief, and the general form of clothing in her veil, Muslim women have begun to comply with this worthy tradition. This article discusses the history of the rise and spread of the hijab and its types. And here is described in detail types of hijab and its intended value, style hijab in different regions. Now wearing the hijab, hijab in general the problem is important not only in the Arab world, but also in the world.
Religion revival including Islam in Kazakhstan represents reaction, first of all on internal social and political change, events after disintegration of the USSR. Process of revival of Kazakhstan Islam was accompanied as positive, so by negative tendencies. Old mosques were restored, were under construction new, Islamic schools and high schools were created, was widely studied religious the dogmatic person, the corresponding literature was published, expanded contacts with foreign Muslim brothers in the faith, the centers of the Arab-Muslim culture extended. At the same time in Kazakhstan, there are religious-political parties and movements, pursuing radical goals down to change the spiritual and cultural identity of Muslims of Kazakhstan by the forcible introduction of non-traditional religious and political, ethnic and cultural values.
all of religions free towards society in Kazakhstan. Considering that Islam is more widespread religion in the region, Islamic industry is developing sector of Economy. There are some new sectors of Halal (Islamic) industry, which have importance for state developing on the whole. One of the youngest sectors of Halal industry is Islamic tourism, which became an object of disputes and led to dilemma, such as Islamic tourism is a result of a Religious revival and Islamic tourism is a new trend of Tourism. The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival".