International Science Index
Developing Kazakh Language Fluency Test in Nazarbayev University
The Kazakh Language Fluency Test, based on the IELTS exam, was implemented in 2012 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. We would like to share our experience in developing this exam and some exam results with other language instructors. In this paper, we will cover all these peculiarities and their related issues. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test is a young exam. During its development, we faced many difficulties. One of the goals of the university and the country is to encourage fluency in the Kazakh language for all citizens of the Republic. Nazarbayev University has introduced a Kazakh language program to assist in achieving this goal. This policy is one-step in ensuring that NU students have a thorough understanding of the Kazakh language through a fluency test based on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). The Kazakh Language Fluency Test exam aims to determine student’s knowledge of Kazakh language. The fact is that there are three types of students at Nazarbayev University: Kazakh-speaking heritage learners, Russian-speaking and English-speaking students. Unfortunately, we have Kazakh students who do not speak Kazakh. All students who finished school with Russian language instruction are given Kazakh Language Fluency Test in order to determine their Kazakh level. After the test exam, all students can choose appropriate Kazakh course: Basic Kazakh, Intermediate Kazakh and Upper-Intermediate Kazakh. The Kazakh Language Fluency Test consists of four parts: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. They are taken on the same day in the abovementioned order.
Human Resource Management in the Innovation Activity in the Republic of Kazakhstan
This article discusses the principles of object-oriented human capital development using the technology program. Also the article includes priorities of the strategy of industrial-innovative development of Kazakhstan in conditions of integration activity into the world community. The article shows the tasks of human resource management in the implementation of industrial and innovation development, particularities of Kazakhstan's theory of management staff, as well as due to the specificity of the Kazakhstan authorities. In the article had considered the factors which are affecting to the people in the organization and also had considered mechanisms of HRM within organization in the conditions of innovative development in Kazakhstan.
, management of human resources
, innovation process
, HRD model
, innovative development
, economic potential
Women's Religiosity as a Factor in the Persistence of Religious Traditions: Kazakhstan, the XX Century
The main question of the research is - how did the Kazakhs manage to keep their religious thinking in the period of active propaganda of Soviet atheism, for seventy years of struggle against religion with the involvement of the scientific worldview as the primary means of proving the absence of the divine nature and materiality of the world?
Our hypothesis is that In case of Kazakhstan the conservative female religious consciousness seems to have been a factor that helped to preserve the “everyday” religiousness of Kazakhs, which was far from deep theological contents of Islam, but able to revive in a short time after the decennia of proclaimed atheism.
N. A. Nazarbayev and Peculiar Features of Ethnic Language Processes in Kazakhstan
The report focuses on such an important indicator of the nature and direction of development of ethnic and cultural processes in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as ethno linguistic situation. It is shown that, in essence, on the one hand, expresses the degree of the actual propagation and the level of use of the languages of the various ethnic communities. On the other hand, reflects the important patterns, trends and prospects of ethno-cultural and ethnodemographic processes in the Republic. It is important to note that the ethno linguistic situation in different regions of Kazakhstan, due to its more dynamic and much more difficult to demonstrate a much greater variety of options when compared with the ethnic situation in the country. For the two major ethnic groups of the republic – Kazakh and Russian language ethno differentiating retains its value, while for the other ethnic groups observed decline in the importance of this indicator. As you know, the language of international communication in the country is Russian. As the censuses of population, the Russian language in many areas of Northern, Central and Eastern Kazakhstan becomes a means of ethno linguistic development for most of the non-Russian population. This is most clearly illustrated by the Germans, and the Slavic ethnic groups. In this case, the Russian language is not just a means of international communication for a number of ethnic groups, and ethnic groups, it becomes a factor of ethnic self-expression. The value of the Kazakh language as their mother tongue for the other groups of the population is small. More clearly it can be traced only to the Turkic-speaking population of the republic – Uzbeks, Uighurs, Tatars, Turks, etc. The state Kazakh language is a means of international communication in the Western and Southern Kazakhstan, with a predominance of the Kazakh population. The report shows that the most important factor in the development of ethno-linguistic and ethno-cultural processes is bilingualism. Comparative analysis of materials census shows, first, on the increase of the proportion of bilingual population among Kazakhs and Russian, and second, to reduce the proportion of bilingual population of other ethnic groups living in Kazakhstan, and third, a higher proportion bilingual population among residents than rural residents, regardless of their ethnicity. Bilingualism is mainly of a "national Kazakh", "national Russian" or "Kazakh-national" or "Russian-national" character. The President N.A. Nazarbayev said that the Kazakh language is the most important factor in the consolidation of the people of Kazakhstan. He therefore called on government and other state and local representative bodies fully develop the state language, to create all the necessary organizational, material and technical conditions for free and open learning the state language by all citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Taste of Native Land in Everyday Practices of Repatriates – Variations by the Countries of Origin (by Field Materials)
Practices of food sharing as part of the brotherhood and hospitality interpretation have been essential part of the Kazakh ethnic culture since early times. Dialogue in time and space between Kazakhs through differences in food interpretation among the ethnic repatriates may become a link connecting them and platform for stable relations with the host society or serious barrier on the way of their integration in the Kazakhstani society. The article elucidates by the field materials how some aspects of food culture differences among ethnic Kazakhs living abroad (XUAR of China) and ethnic repatriates in Kazakhstan may influence their integration path.
Repatriates in the Kazakhstan: The Problems of Migration and Adaptation to the Historic Homeland
The article is devoted to Kazakh repatriates and their
migration to Kazakhstan as historical homeland, and also addresses
the problem of migrants- adaptation in the republic, particularly in
Almaty oblast (region). The authors used up-to-date statictics and
materials of the Department of Migration Committee to analyze the
newcomers- number and features of the repatriate-s location in this
oblast. Having studied this region they were able to identify the main
reasons why Kazakh Diaspora in Central Asia, Iran, Avganistana and
Turkey is eager to come back to their historic homeland along with
repatriates adaptation to the republic.
Cultural Integration as a Factor of Genesis of the Kazakh Nation in the Conditions of Multicultural Society
The article analyses historical aspects of the formation
of the Kazakh nation in the conditions of the multicultural society.
The authors underline cultural integration as a significant stage of the
cultural advancement of the Kazakh nation. The transition to the
modern-style houses, the adoption and development of the secular
education gave a rise to the development of the society and culture
on the whole.
The Role of the Shamanistic Music in the Kazakh Folk Culture
The relics of traditional folk culture in Kazakhstan are ceremonies or their fragments - such as weddings, funerals, shamanism. The world of spiritual creatures, spirits-protectors, spirits-helpers, injury spirits, spirits of illnesses, etc., is described in detail in shamanic rites (in Kazakh culture it is called bakslyk). The study of these displays of folk culture, which reflect the peoples` ethnic mentality or notions about the structure, values and hierarchies of the universe, includes collection and recording of the field materials and their interpretation, i.e. reconstruction of those meanings which were initially embodied or “coded" in folklore. A distinctive feature of Kazakh nomadic culture is its self-preservation and actualization, almost untouched the ancient mythologies of the world, in particular, the mythologies connected with music, musical instruments and the creator of music. Within the frameworks of the traditional culture the word and the music keep the sacral meaning. The ritual melodies and what they carry – the holly, and at the same time unexplored, powerful and threatening, uncontrolled by people world – keep on attributing the soul to all, connected with culture.
The Studying of The “Бақыт”(“Happiness”) Concept In The Kazakh Language
The given article deals with the usage of the concept
in many spheres of science, including its place in the Kazakh
linguistics One of such concepts is the role of the “бақыт”
(“happiness”) concept in the Kazakh outlook. The work tells us about
its studying. The data about studying of the “happiness” concept in
the sphere of philosophy, psychology, cognitive linguistics, lingo
cultural study, logics, psycho-linguistic are given in this work.
Particularly dwelling at length on the studying level of the concept in
the sphere of cognitive linguistics, analysis have been made
pertaining linguist point of views. It was pointed out that the concept
of “happiness” hasn’t been studied yet in the Kazakh linguistics and
it is necessary to find out the meaning of the language units related to
this concept, i.e. blessings, proverbs, sayings and phrasiological units.
Scientific Orientation of Youth as the Basis of Formation of a New University Culture
At present the process of formation of corporate
values in Kazakh universities is under the influence of a whole range
of socio-economic and cultural changes: on the one hand universities
must maintain and transmit traditional cultural values of education,
on the other, to improve quality of service and to involve young
people to science, providing thus own competitiveness. Thus, this
article presents some results of two cycles of sociological research
conducted in 2012 and aimed at identifying possible ways to
popularize science and readiness to participate of youth in given
activities, expectations of young scientists and the prospects of future
development of the Kazakh science.
Maintenance of Philosophical, Humanistic and Religious Values of Security of the Kazakh Nation
People have always needed to believe in some
supernatural power, which could explain nature phenomena.
Different kinds of religions like Christianity, Hinduism, Islam,
Buddhism have thought believers in all world, how to behave
themselves. We think the most important role of religion in modern
society most important role of religion in modern society is safety of
the People. World and traditional religion played a prominent role in
the socio-cultural progress, and in the development of man as a
spiritual being. At the heart of religious morals the belief in god and
responsibility before it lies and specifies religious and ethical values
and categories . The religion is based on ethical standards historically
developed by society, requirements and concepts, but it puts all
social and moral relations of the person in dependence on religious
values. For everything that the believer makes on a debt or a duty, he
bears moral responsibility before conscience, people and god. The
concept of value of religious morals takes the central place because
the religion from all forms of public consciousness most values is
painted as it is urged to answer vital questions. Any religion not only
considers questions of creation of the world, sense of human
existence, relationship of god and the person, but also offers the
ethical concept, develops rules of behavior of people. The religion a
long time dominated in the history of culture, and during this time
created a set of cultural and material values. The identity of Kazakh
culture can be defined as a Cultural identity traditional ,national
identity and the identity values developed by Kazakh people in
process of cultural-historical development, promoting formation of
Kazakh culture identity on public consciousness. Identity is the
historical process but always the tradition exists in it as a component
of stability, as a component of self that what this identity formed .
Kazakh Literature in Emigration and Works of Mazhit Aitbayev
Major social changes in the last century had significant impact on the Kazakh literature. Participants of the World War II, writers and poets imprisoned during the war, formed the Kazakh literature in emigration within the framework of 'Turkistan Legion'. This was a topic which remained closed until Kazakhstan gained its independence, though even after the independence, there were few research works done about the literature in emigration. The article studies the formation of the Kazakh literature in emigration, its prominent figures, its artistic heritage, and notes of emigration in works of poets and writers.
Kazakhstani Humanism: Challenges and Prospects
This article examines the emergence and development
of the Kazakhstan species of humanism. The biggest challenge for
Kazakhstan in terms of humanism is connected with advocating
human values in parallel to promoting national interests; preserving
the continuity of traditions in various spheres of life, business and
culture. This should be a common goal for the entire society, the
main direction for a national intelligence, and a platform for the state
policy. An idea worth considering is a formation of national humanist
tradition model; the challenges are adapting people to live in the
context of new industrial and innovative economic conditions,
keeping the balance during intensive economic development of the
country, and ensuring social harmony in the society.
Traditions of Theatrical Art in the Space of Nomadic Culture of the Kazakhs
A number of theoretical and methodological problems connected with substantiation of a new approach and searches of a new research paradigm and the analysis of features of formation and development of the Kazakh stage are considered in the article. The wide spectrum of questions connected with genesis of the Kazakh stage art has caused necessity of consideration of world outlook and social cultural aspects which have affected formation of the given phenomenon in the Kazakh culture. But how can we define the form of expression and aesthetics of the national theatre? Probably, the answer to this question we will find if we apply to deep world view sources, and, as a consequence, it is necessary to study deeply the plot dramaturgy, which is based on myths, rites and eposes, mastering of symbolic gestures and mimics, allegory of a word, etc.
The Culture of Interethnic Concord in Kazakhstan: Peculiarities of Formation and Development
This paper describes the historical development of
interethnic concord in the Republic of Kazakhstan, and emphasizes
the role of tolerance mentality of the Kazakh people in ethno-political
policy of the country. Moreover, pointing out interethnic concord as a
powerful stabilizing factor, it analyses the specifics of interethnic
policy in multinational Kazakh society. It summarizes that the culture
of interethnic concord can be a model of ethno- political policy of
Political Preconditions for National Values of the Kazakhstan Nation
Article is devoted to the problem of Kazakhstan people national values in the conditions of the Republic of Kazakhstan independence. Formation of ethnos national values is viewed as the mandatory constituent of this process in contemporary conditions. The article shows the dynamics of forming socialspiritual basis of Kazakhstan people-s national values. It depicts peculiarities of interethnic relations in poly-ethnic and multiconfessional Kazakhstan. The study reviews in every detail various directions of the state social policy development in the sphere of national values. It is aimed to consolidation of the society to achieve the shared objective, i.e. building democratic and civilized state. The author discloses peculiarities of ethnos national values development using specific sources. It is underlined that renewal and modernization of Kazakhstan society represents new stage in the national value development, and its typical feature is integration process based on peoples- friendship, cultural principles of interethnic communication.
National Specific of Idioms in Kazakh and Korean Languages
It is well known that the phraseology of a language - the phenomenon of identity. This uniqueness is due to the fact that "there are idioms image-based views of reality that shows mainly of everyday empirical, historical and spiritual experience of a language community, associated with its cultural traditions. The article says that the phraseological units very clearly show the image of the people and give us a great view of the national identity. With the phraseology of the Kazakh and Korean language can understand the mentality of the nation, identity, perception of people. It is in the phraseological units can surprise the culture and customs of the people. Phraseological units store and transmit information about the level of material and spiritual culture of the people, his life, past and present, the development of society in general. And in Korean and Kazakh languages idioms occupy a particularly important role.
Legal Education as Forming Factor of Legal Culture in Kazakhstan Modern Society
Forming a legal culture among citizens is a
complicated and lengthy process, influencing all spheres of social
life. It includes promoting justice, learning rights and duties, the
introduction of juridical norms and knowledge, and also a process of
developing a system of legal acts and constitutional norms. Currently,
the evaluative and emotional influence of attempts to establish a legal
culture among the citizens of Kazakhstan is limited by real legal
practice. As a result, the values essential to a sound civil society are
absent from the consciousness of the Kazakh people who are thus, in
turn, not able to develop respect for these values. One of the
disadvantages of the modern Kazakh educational system is a
tendency to underrate the actual forces shaping the worldview of
Kazakh youths. The mass-media, which are going through a
personnel crisis, cannot provide society with the legal and political
information necessary to form the sort of legal culture required for a
true civil society.
Modernization of the People's Republic of China: History and Complexities
The aim of this paper is to investigate a process of modernization of the People-s Republic of China. The theme of scientific research is interesting, first, because the Chinese model of development is recognized as successful and most dynamically developing. They are obliged by these successes of the modernization spent in the country. Economy modernization as the basic motive power of progress of the country is a priority direction of development in the Republic of Kazakhstan. So the example of successful development modernization processes in China can be rather useful to use in working out of the Kazakhstan national reforms.
Higher Education in Kazakhstan: New Opportunities and Problems of Crystallization of the Middle Strata Status
Education in the modern world provides the socioeconomic
progress of society. In today's society, where the presence
of large middle class ensures its stability and is a symbol of
resolution of hidden economic problems, education is an integral part
of formation and reproduction of the middle class. This article presents part of results of the sociological study conducted under the
project "Kazakhstan model of education: international experience and national traditions" supported by the Foundation of the First President
of Republic of Kazakhstan - Leader of the Nation to determine the
ratio of students to the transformations of the educational system. The
authors conclude that the Kazakhstani system of education, passing
through the transformation processes, improving the quality of
educational programs and trying to correspond to the international
standards, not yet in full range, but begins to perform important
functions in the formation of the middle class.
A National Idea in Conditions of the Islamic Revival
Discussion and development of principles of the
uniform nation formation within the limits of the Kazakhstan state
obviously became one of the most pressing questions of the day. The
fact that this question has not been solved "from above" as many
other questions has caused really brisk discussion, shows us increase
of civil consciousness in Kazakhstan society, and also the actuality of
this theme which can be carried in the category of fatal questions. In
any sense, nation building has raised civil society to a much higher
level. It would be better to begin with certain definitions. First is the
word "nation". The second is the "state". Both of these terms are very
closely connected with each other, so that in English language they
are in general synonyms. In Russian more shades of these terms
exist. For example in Kazakhstan the citizens of the country
irrespective of nationality (but mainly with reference to non-kazakhs)
are called «kazakhstanians», while the name of the title nation is
\"Kazakhs\". The same we can see in Russia, where, for example, the
Chechen or the Yakut –are \"Rossiyane\" which means “the citizens
of Russian Federation, but not \"Russians\".
The paper was written under the research project “Islam in modern
Kazakhstan: the nature and outcome of the religious revival”.
Islam and Kazakh Society before Soviet Era
The article considers religious aspects of Kazakh
society pre-Soviet times. Studying the mental, political and spiritual
content of Islam, the reasons for its wide distribution among the ancestors of the Kazakhs is analyzed. Interested Russians since the
accession of the Kazakh Khanate to the Russian Empire more than
once pointed out that Islam is a synthesis of Islam and Shamanism.
But shamanism is a generalization of the name of religion, which
took place prior to Islam in the land of the Kazakh people. Here we can see the elements of Zoroastrianism, Tengrianism, etc. This shows
that the ancestors of the Kazakhs - Turkic people - not renounced the
ancient beliefs completely and leave some portion of these religions
as an integral part of the worldview of the people, by the device.
Therefore, the founder of the Turkic Sufi Yasaui still has a huge impact on the religiosity of the Kazakhs. He managed elements of the
ancient religion, which formed the basis of the Kazakhs world, interpreted in the Muslim perspective. The Russian authorities tried
to quell by Islamization Kazakh people. But it was Islam that has
revived the national consciousness of the Kazakh people.
The Genesis of the Art of the Kazakh Sals, Seris and Paluans in Characteristic Comparison to European Histriones and Russian Skomorkhs
This article is a piece of the doctoral thesis
"Syncretism of traditional Kazakh culture in the light of the
innovation direction of circus and choreographic art of Kazakhstan
and its integration into the world civilization", and reveals the
features of the creative personalities of the traditional culture of
shamans, sals, seris, paluans in the comparative characteristic of the
European histriones and Russian skomorokhs.
Transliterating Methods of the Kazakh Onyms in the Arabic Language
Transliteration is frequently used especially in writing geographic denominations, personal names (onyms) etc. Proper names (onyms) of all languages must sound similarly in translated works as well as in scientific projects and works written in mother tongue, because we can get introduced with the nation, its history, culture, traditions and other spiritual values through the onyms of that nation. Therefore it is necessary to systematize the different transliterations of onyms of foreign languages. This paper is dedicated to the problem of making the project of transliterating Kazakh onyms into Arabic. In order to achieve this goal we use scientific or practical types of transliteration. Because in this type of transliteration provides easy reading writing source language's texts in the target language without any diacritical symbols, it is limited by the target language's alphabetic system.
Abai Kunanbayev's Role in Enrichment of the Kazakh Language
Abai Kunanbayev is famous for being enlightener,
composer, interpreter, social agent, philosopher, reformer, who
wanted to enrich Kazakh literature by emergence with Russian and
European culture, and also as a founder of Kazakh written literary
language. Abai Kunanbayev was born in 1845 in East Kazakhstan
area and passed away in 1904 in his hometown. His oeuvre absorbed
and reflected all changes in the life of Kazakh society of the second
half of XIX century. Because ХІХ century, especially its second half,
was an important transition period for Kazakhstan, which radically
changed traditional way of Kazakh society and predetermined further
development in consequence of activation of Russian colonial policy
and approval of commodity-money relations in Steppe Land.Abai
Kunanbayev, besides Arabic and Persian common words and
loanwords from Quran in his words of edification, had used a lot of
words of Arabic, Persian, Latin, Russian, Nogai, Shaghatai, Polish,
Greek, Turkish, which are used in the Kazakh language.
Translation of Phraseological Units in Abai Kunanbayev-s Poems
Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904) was a great Kazakh
poet, composer and philosopher. Abai's main contribution to Kazakh
culture and folklore lies in his poetry, which expresses great
nationalism and grew out of Kazakh folk culture. Before him, most
Kazakh poetry was oral, echoing the nomadic habits of the people of
the Kazakh steppes. We want to introduce to abroad our country, its
history, tradition and culture. We can introduce it only through
translations. Only by reading the Kazakh works can foreign people
know who are kazakhs, the style of their life, their thoughts and so
on. All information comes only through translation. The main
requirement to a good translation is that it should be natural or that it
should read as smoothly as the original. Literary translation should
be adequate, should follow the original to the fullest. Translators
have to be loyal to original text, they shouldn-t give the way to
Some Reflexions on the Selfunderstanding of the Kazakh People: A Way of Building Identity in the Modern World
This article explores the self-identity of the Kazakh
people by way of identifying the roots of self-understanding in
Kazakh culture. Unfortunately, Western methods of ethno
psychology cannot fully capture what is unique about identity in
Kazakh culture. Although Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country in
terms of geographical space, Kazakh cultural identity is not wellknown
in the West. In this article we offer an account of the national
psychological features of the Kazakh people, in order to reveal the
spiritual, mental, ethical dimensions of modern Kazakhs. These
factors play a central role in the revival of forms of identity that are
central to the Kazakh people.